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The technical Avalanche Protection Handbook

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Descripción

Large, high energy snow avalanches can have high destructive consequences in developed areas. Each year, avalanche catastrophes occur in many mountain regions around the globe. This causes a large number of fatalities and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure. In some mountain areas, especially in the European Alps, a high level of safety for settlement areas is attained by application of technical avalanche defense construction. Simultaneously, new risk potentials continue to emerge in mountain regions from building in endangered areas, the establishment of new roads and railway lines across the mountains and development of tourism. Consequently, the demand for technical avalanche protection is constantly increasing.


Características

  • ISBN: 978-3-433-03034-9
  • Páginas: 430
  • Tamaño: 21x30
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2014

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido The technical Avalanche Protection Handbook

Large, high energy snow avalanches can have high destructive consequences in developed areas. Each year, avalanche catastrophes occur in many mountain regions around the globe. This causes a large number of fatalities and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure. In some mountain areas, especially in the European Alps, a high level of safety for settlement areas is attained by application of technical avalanche defense construction. Simultaneously, new risk potentials continue to emerge in mountain regions from building in endangered areas, the establishment of new roads and railway lines across the mountains and development of tourism. Consequently, the demand for technical avalanche protection is constantly increasing.
During the last decades technical avalanche protection has evolved especially in the Alpine countries Austria, Switzerland, Italy and France as well as Norway, Iceland, USA and Canada  from a specialist field to a stand alone engineering branch. Currently avalanche defense structures and protection systems are established in practically all inhabited mountain regions worldwide.
With this handbook the editors are able to provide the first comprehensive overview of the field of technical avalanche protection in the English language and establish a common "state of the art". The book is based on the German edition, published in 2011, and comprises all relevant facts on fundamentals of avalanche protection technology as well as of planning, dimensioning, construction and maintenance of defense structures. The editors were able to bring together an international team of leading experts in technical avalanche protection.

Contents:

1 Introduction

1.1 Avalanche hazards  
    1.1.1 Overview and terminology
    1.1.2 Avalanche hazards: historical and geographical relevance
1.2 Technical avalanche defense: classification  
    1.2.1 Classification scheme of defense measures and their effects
    1.2.2 Permanent technical avalanche protection (defense structures)  
    1.2.3 Technical avalanche defense with temporary effects

1.3 Avalanche disasters, development of avalanche defense: historical overview
    1.3.1 Chronicle of avalanche catastrophes

1.4 History of avalanche defense
    1.4.1 Historical development in Europe

2 Avalanches: evolution and impact  

2.1 Characteristics of avalanches  
    2.1.1 Definitions and classifications
    2.1.2 Spatial and temporal occurrence of avalanches
2.2 Meteorological principles of avalanche evolution
    2.2.1 Weather conditions forming avalanches in the European Alps
    2.2.2 Weather conditions forming avalanches in North America (western ranges)  
    2.2.3 Weather conditions forming avalanches in other mountain regions
2.3 Nivological principles of avalanche evolution  
    2.3.1 Properties of material snow
    2.3.2 Genesis of snow  
    2.3.3 Snow metamorphism  
    2.3.4 Snowpack
2.4 Frequency and magnitude of avalanche events
    2.4.1 Criteria for frequency, magnitude and risk assessment
    2.4.2 Frequency (recurrence) of avalanche events
    2.4.3 Magnitude of avalanche events2.4.4 Intensity of avalanche impact

2.5 Morphological principles of avalanche evolution

    2.5.1 Avalanche catchment area
    2.5.2 Avalanche starting zone  
    2.5.3 Avalanche path
    2.5.4 Avalanche runout zone (deposition zone)

2.6 Avalanche protection forest  
    2.6.1 Effects of vegetation and forest on avalanche formation  
    2.6.2 Effects of avalanches on trees and forests

3 Avalanche dynamics: models and impact

3.1 Principles of avalanche dynamics

    3.1.1 Physical principles  
    3.1.2 Dynamics of flow and powder snow avalanches

3.2 Numerical avalanche models and simulation  

    3.2.1 Application of avalanche models  
    3.2.2 Principles and data for avalanche modelling
    3.2.3 Avalanche model overview: classification  
    3.2.4 Statistical-topographical avalanche models  
    3.2.5 Physical-dynamic avalanche models
3.3 Avalanche action on objects (obstacles)
    3.3.1 Dynamic avalanche action  
    3.3.2 Damage effects of avalanches

4 Avalanche hazard assessment and planning of protection measures

4.1 Avalanche hazard (risk) assessment and mapping  
 
    4.1.1 Model of hazard assessment and risk concept
    4.1.2 Avalanche hazards and risks: definitions and quantification
    4.1.3 Methods of hazard assessment  
    4.1.4 Avalanche risk assessment
4.2 Mapping of avalanche hazards and risks
    4.2.1 Overview
    4.2.2 Hazard (indication) maps  
    4.2.3 Hazard zone plans
    4.2.4 Risk maps

4.3 Planning of avalanche defense structures

    4.3.1 Principles of planning
    4.3.2 Objectives of avalanche defense
    4.3.3 Sectorial protection concepts  
    4.3.4 Planning process for technical avalanche defense measures

5 Structural avalanche protection: defense systems and construction types

5.1 Principles of structural avalanche defense
5.2 Structural avalanche defense in the starting zone
    5.2.1 Overview and classification  
    5.2.2 Snow supporting structures: construction types
    5.2.3 Foundation and anchoring of snow supporting structures
    5.2.4 Snowdrift control structures  
    5.2.5 Snow glide protection structures

5.3 Structural avalanche defense in the avalanche path and deposition zone
    5.3.1 Classification
    5.3.2 Longitudinal defense structures (construction types to guide and deflect avalanches)  
    5.3.3 Transverse defense structures (construction types to catch or retard avalanches)
    5.3.4 Avalanche galleries and tunnels

6 Structural avalanche defense: design and construction  

6.1 Normative bases of design  
    6.1.1 EUROCODE and national standards in Austria, Germany and Switzerland
    6.1.2 American national standard (ANSI) and Canadian standard (CSA)

6.2 Design of avalanche defense structures in the starting zone
    6.2.1 General rules for designing avalanche defense structures
    6.2.2 Design snow height
    6.2.3 Position of protected objects
    6.2.4 Static systems for avalanche defense structures  
    6.2.5 Actions on snow supporting structures
    6.2.6 Layout and configuration of snow supporting structures in the starting area
    6.2.7 Building materials for avalanche defense structures
    6.2.8 Structure assessment and design
    6.2.9 Geotechnical design of the foundations of snow supporting structures
    6.2.10 Design of snow supporting structures on permafrost sites

6.3 Design of snowdrift protection structures
    6.3.1 Design of snowdrift fences and wind baffles  
    6.3.2 Design of wind roofs (jet roof)

6.4 Design of avalanche catching, deflection and retarding structures
    6.4.1 Determining of the required height of catching and deflection dams (classical approach)
    6.4.2 Determining the required height of catching and deflection dams by a more physically based approach
    6.4.3 Geotechnical design of avalanche deflection and retarding dams

6.5 Design of avalanche breakers
    6.5.1 General remarks  
    6.5.2 Actions on avalanche breaker and structural systems
    6.5.3 Constructive design

6.6 Design of avalanche galleries (tunnels)

7 Construction work and maintenance of structural avalanche control  

7.1 Construction work (avalanche defense structures)  

    7.1.1 Fundamentals of construction work in Alpine environments
    7.1.2 Construction site facilities and infrastructure  
    7.1.3 Transportation systems on avalanche defense construction sites  
    7.1.4 Special construction methods in avalanche defense in the starting zone
    7.1.5 Safety engineering in avalanche control

7.2 Maintenance of avalanche defense structures
    7.2.1 Principles of maintenance
    7.2.2 Maintenance management and condition assessment
    7.2.3 Damage and functional defects of avalanche defense structures
    7.2.4 Maintenance measures for avalanche defense structures

8 Building protection (direct protection) measures

8.1 Structural building protection measures

    8.1.1 Principles of building protection against avalanches  
    8.1.2 Avalanche action on buildings  
    8.1.3 Structural measures at the building
    8.1.4 Structural measures in front of the building  
    8.1.5 Building defense measures for other structures

8.2 Safety concepts for buildings endangered by avalanches

9 Artificial release and monitoring technology for avalanches

9.1 Methods of temporary avalanche defense
9.2 Artificial release of avalanches
    9.2.1 General remarks  
    9.2.2 Fundamentals of artificial release of avalanches
    9.2.3 Effects of artificial release
    9.2.4 Methods of artificial avalanche release: overview
    9.2.5 Comparison of methods: effects and efficiency  
    9.2.6 Safety requirements and risks of artificial avalanche release  
    9.2.7 Construction and operation of selected artificial release systems

9.3 Avalanche monitoring technology  

    9.3.1 Principles of avalanche monitoring
    9.3.2 Meteorological monitoring
    9.3.3 Monitoring snow cover
    9.3.4 Monitoring snow mechanics
    9.3.5 Monitoring with remote sensing technology
    9.3.6 Monitoring snow forces on avalanche defense measures
    9.3.7 Monitoring avalanche dynamics

10 Technical avalanche protection international: facts and figures

Literature

Index
 

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