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fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010

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Descripción

The International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) is a pre-normative organization. 'Pre-normative' implies pioneering work in codification. This work has now been realized with the fib Model Code 2010. The objectives of the fib Model Code 2010 are to serve as a basis for future codes for concrete structures, and present new developments with regard to concrete structures, structural materials and new ideas in order to achieve optimum behaviour.


Características

  • ISBN: 978-3-433-03061-5
  • Páginas: 500
  • Tamaño: 21x30
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2013

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 15 a 30 Días

Contenido fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010

The International Federation for Structural Concrete (fib) is a pre-normative organization. 'Pre-normative' implies pioneering work in codification. This work has now been realized with the fib Model Code 2010. The objectives of the fib Model Code 2010 are to serve as a basis for future codes for concrete structures, and present new developments with regard to concrete structures, structural materials and new ideas in order to achieve optimum behaviour.
The fib Model Code 2010 is now the most comprehensive code on concrete structures, including their complete life cycle: conceptual design, dimensioning, construction, conservation and dismantlement. It is expected to become an important document for both national and international code committees, practitioners and researchers.

The fib Model Code 2010 was produced during the last ten years through an exceptional effort by Joost Walraven (Convener; Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands), Agnieszka Bigaj-van Vliet (Technical Secretary; TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, The Netherlands) as well as experts out of 44 countries from five continents.

- Performance requirements for serviceability, structural safety, service life and reliability
- Performance requirements for sustainability
- Life Cycle Management

CONTENTS


Preface
1 1 Scope
1.1 Aim of the fib Model Code 2010
1.2 Format
1.3 Levels of approximation
1.4 Structure of the fib Model Code 2010

2 Terminology


2.1 Definitions
2.2 References

3 Basic principles

3.1 General
3.1.1 Levels of performance
3.1.2 Levels-of-approximation approach
3.2 Performance-based design and assessment
3.2.1 General approach
3.2.2 Basis for verification
3.3 Performance requirements for serviceability, structural safety, service life and reliability
3.3.1 Performance criteria for serviceability and structural safety 
3.3.1.1 Serviceability limit states
3.3.1.2 Ultimate limit states
3.3.1.3 Robustness
 3.3.2 Service life
3.3.2.1 Specified service life and residual service life
3.3.2.2 Verification of service life 
3.3.3 Reliability
3.3.3.1 Target reliability level
3.3.3.2 Component reliability and system reliability
3.4 Performance requirements for sustainability
3.4.1 General
3.4.2 Performance requirements for environmental impact
3.4.3 Performance requirements for impact on society
3.5 Life cycle management
3.5.1 General
3.5.2 Quality management
3.5.2.1 General
3.5.2.2 Project quality plan
3.5.2.3 Life cycle file
3.5.3 Quality management in design
3.5.3.1 Objectives
3.5.3.2 Design file
3.5.3.3 Briefing phase
3.5.3.4 Scouting phase
3.5.3.5 Basis of design phase
3.5.3.6 Project specification phase
3.5.3.7 Final design phase
3.5.3.8 Detailed design phase
3.5.4 Quality management in construction
3.5.4.1 Objectives
3.5.4.2 As-built documentation (birth certificate document)
3.5.5 Quality management in conservation
3.5.5.1 Objectives
3.5.5.2 Service life file
3.5.6 Quality management in dismantlement 
3.5.6.1 Objectives
3.5.6.2 Dismantlement document

4 Principles of structural design

4.1 Design situations
4.2 Design strategies
4.3 Design methods
4.3.1 Limit state design principles
4.3.2 Safety formats
4.4 Probabilistic safety format
4.4.1 General
4.4.2 Basic rules for probabilistic approach
4.5 Partial factor format
4.5.1 General
4.5.1.1 Basic variables
4.5.1.2 Design condition
4.5.1.3 Design values of basic variables
4.5.1.4 Representative values of basic variables
4.5.2 Basic rules for partial factor approach 
4.5.2.1 General
4.5.2.2 Ultimate limit states
4.5.2.3 Fatigue verification
4.5.2.4 Verification of structures subjected to impact and explosion
4.5.2.5 Serviceability limit states
4.6 Global resistance format
4.6.1 General
4.6.2 Basic rules for global resistance approach
4.6.2.1 Representative variables
4.6.2.2 Design condition
4.7 Deemed-to-satisfy approach
4.7.1 General
4.7.2 Durability related exposure categories
4.8 Design by avoidance

5 Materials

5.1 Concrete
5.1.1 General and range of applicability
5.1.2 Classification by strength
5.1.3 Classification by density
5.1.4 Compressive strength
5.1.5 Tensile strength and fracture properties
5.1.5.1 Tensile strength
5.1.5.2 Fracture energy
5.1.6 Strength under multiaxial states of stress
5.1.7 Modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio
5.1.7.1 Range of application
5.1.7.2 Modulus of elasticity
5.1.7.3 Poisson's ratio
5.1.8 Stress--strain relations for short term loading
5.1.8.1 Compression
5.1.8.2 Tension
5.1.8.3 Multiaxial states of stress
5.1.8.4 Shear friction behaviour in cracks
5.1.9 Time effects
5.1.9.1 Development of strength with time
5.1.9.2 Strength under sustained loads
5.1.9.3 Development of modulus of elasticity with time
5.1.9.4 Creep and shrinkage
5.1.10 Temperature effects
5.1.10.1 Range of application
5.1.10.2 Maturity
5.1.10.3 Thermal expansion
5.1.10.4 Compressive strength
5.1.10.5 Tensile strength and fracture properties
5.1.10.6 Modulus of elasticity
5.1.10.7 Creep and shrinkage
5.1.10.8 High temperatures
5.1.10.9 Low temperatures (cryogenic temperatures)
5.1.11 Properties related to non-static loading
5.1.11.1 Fatigue
5.1.11.2 Stress and strain rate effects -- impact
5.1.12 Transport of liquids and gases in hardened concrete
5.1.12.1 Permeation
5.1.12.2 Diffusion
5.1.12.3 Capillary suction
5.1.13 Properties related to durability
5.1.13.1 General
5.1.13.2 Carbonation progress
5.1.13.3 Ingress of chlorides
5.1.13.4 Freeze-thaw and freeze-thaw de-icing agent degradation
5.1.13.5 Alkali-aggregate reaction
5.1.13.6 Degradation by acids
5.1.13.7 Leaching progress
5.2 Reinforcing steel
5.2.1 General 
5.2.2 Quality control
5.2.3 Designation
5.2.4 Geometrical properties
5.2.4.1 Size
5.2.4.2 Surface characteristics
5.2.5 Mechanical properties
5.2.5.1 Tensile properties
5.2.5.2 Steel grades
5.2.5.3 Stress--strain diagram
5.2.5.4 Ductility
5.2.5.5 Shear of welded joints in welded fabric
5.2.5.6 Fatigue behaviour
5.2.5.7 Behaviour under extreme thermal conditions
5.2.5.8 Effect of strain rate
5.2.6 Technological properties
5.2.6.1 Bendability
5.2.6.2 Weldability
5.2.6.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion
5.2.6.4 Provisions for quality control
5.2.7 Special types of steels 
5.2.8 Assumptions used for design 
5.3 Prestressing steel
5.3.1 General
5.3.2 Quality control
5.3.3 Designation
5.3.4 Geometrical properties
5.3.5 Mechanical properties 
5.3.5.1 Tensile properties
5.3.5.2 Stress--strain diagram 
5.3.5.3 Fatigue behaviour
5.3.5.4 Behaviour under extreme thermal conditions
5.3.5.5 Effect of strain rate
5.3.5.6 Bond characteristics
5.3.6 Technological properties
5.3.6.1 Isothermal stress relaxation
5.3.6.2 Deflected tensile behaviour (only for strands with nominal diameter => 12.5 mm)
5.3.6.3 Stress corrosion resistance
5.3.6.4 Coefficient of thermal expansion
5.3.6.5 Residual stresses
5.3.7 Special types of prestressing steel
5.3.7.1 Metallic coating
5.3.7.2 Organic coating
5.3.7.3 Exterior sheathing with a filling product
5.3.8 Assumptions used for design
5.4 Prestressing systems
5.4.1 General
5.4.2 Post-tensioning system components and materials
5.4.2.1 Anchorages and coupling devices
5.4.2.2 Ducts
5.4.2.3 Filling materials
5.4.2.4 Quality control
5.4.3 Protection of tendons
5.4.3.1 Temporary corrosion protection
5.4.3.2 Permanent corrosion protection
5.4.3.3 Permanent corrosion protection of prestressing steel
5.4.3.4 Permanent protection of FRP materials
5.4.3.5 Fire protection
5.4.4 Stresses at tensioning, time of tensioning
5.4.4.1 Time of tensioning
5.4.4.2 Tendons made from prestressing steel
5.4.4.3 Tendons made from FRP materials 
5.4.5 Initial prestress
5.4.5.1 General
5.4.5.2 Losses occurring in pretensioning beds
5.4.5.3 Immediate losses occurring during stressing
5.4.6 Value of prestressing force during design life (time t > 0)
5.4.6.1 Calculation of time-dependent losses made of prestressing steel
5.4.6.2 Calculation of time-dependent losses made of FRP
5.4.7 Design values of forces in prestressing
5.4.7.1 General
5.4.7.2 Design values for SLS and fatigue verifications
5.4.7.3 Design values for ULS verifications
5.4.8 Design values of tendon elongations 
5.4.9 Detailing rules for prestressing tendons
5.4.9.1 Pretensioning tendons
5.4.9.2 Post-tensioning tendons
5.5 Non-metallic reinforcement
5.5.1 General
5.5.2 Quality control
5.5.3 Designation
5.5.4 Geometrical properties
5.5.4.1 Configuration 140
5.5.4.2 Size
5.5.4.3 Surface characteristics
5.5.5 Mechanical properties
5.5.5.1 Tensile strength and ultimate strain
5.5.5.2 Type
5.5.5.3 Stress--strain diagram and modulus of elasticity
5.5.4 Compressive and shear strength
5.5.5.5 Fatigue behaviour
5.5.5.6 Creep behaviour
5.5.5.7 Relaxation
5.5.5.8 Behaviour under elevated temperature and under extreme thermal conditions
5.5.6 Technological properties
5.5.6.1 Bond characteristics
5.5.6.2 Bendability
5.5.6.3 Coefficient of thermal expansion
5.5.6.4 Durability
5.5.7 Assumptions used for design
5.6 Fibres/fibre reinforced concrete
5.6.1 Introduction
5.6.2 Material properties
5.6.2.1 Behaviour in compression
5.6.2.2 Behaviour in tension
 5.6.3 Classification
5.6.4 Constitutive laws
5.6.5 Stress--strain relationship
5.6.6 Partial safety factors
5.6.7 Orientation factor

6 Interface characteristics

6.1 Bond of embedded steel reinforcement
6.1.1 Local bond--slip relationship
6.1.1.1 Local bond stress--slip model, ribbed bars
6.1.1.2 Influence of transverse cracking
6.1.1.3 Influence of yielding, transverse stress and longitudinal cracking and cyclic loading
6.1.1.5 Unloading branch
6.1.1.6 Plain (non-ribbed) surface bars
6.1.2 Influence on serviceability
6.1.3 Anchorage and lapped joints of reinforcement
6.1.3.2 Basic bond strength
6.1.3.3 Design bond strength
6.1.3.4 Design anchorage length
6.1.3.5 Contribution of hooks and bends
6.1.3.6 Headed reinforcement
6.1.3.7 Laps of bars in tension
6.1.3.8 Laps of bars in compression
6.1.3.9 Anchorage of bundled bars
6.1.3.10 Lapped joints of bundled bars
6.1.4 Anchorage and lapped joints of welded fabric
6.1.4.1 Design anchorage length of welded fabric
6.1.4.2 Design lap length of welded fabric in tension
6.1.4.3 Design lap length of welded fabric in compression
6.1.5 Special circumstances
6.1.5.1 Slipform construction 
6.1.5.2 Bentonite walling
6.1.5.3 Post-installed reinforcement
.1.5.4 Electrochemical extraction of chlorides (ECE)
6.1.6 Conditions of service
6.1.6.1 Cryogenic conditions
6.1.6.2 Elevated temperatures 
6.1.7 Degradation
6.1.7.1 Corrosion
6.1.7.2 Alkali silica reaction (ASR)
6.1.7.3 Frost
6.1.7.4 Fire
6.1.8 Anchorage of pretensioned prestressing tendons
 6.1.8.1 General
 6.1.8.2 Design bond strength 
6.1.8.3 Basic anchorage length
6.1.8.4 Transmission length
6.1.8.5 Design anchorage length 
6.1.8.6 Development length
6.2 Bond of non-metallic reinforcement
 6.2.1 Local bond stress--slip model
6.2.1.1 Local bond stress--slip model for FRP rebars
6.2.1.2 Local bond stress--slip model for externally bonded FRP
6.2.2 Bond and anchorage of internal FRP reinforcement
6.2.3 Bond and anchorage of externally bonded FRP reinforcement
6.2.3.1 Bond-critical failure modes
6.2.3.2 Maximum bond length
6.2.3.3 Ultimate strength for end debonding -- anchorage capacity
6.2.3.4 Ultimate strength for end debonding -- concrete rip-off
 6.2.3.5 Ultimate strength for intermediate debonding
6.2.3.6 Interfacial stresses for the serviceability limit state
6.2.4 Mechanical anchorages for externally bonded FRP reinforcement
6.3 Concrete to concrete
6.3.1 Definitions and scope
6.3.2 Interface roughness characteristics
6.3.3 Mechanisms of shear transfer
6.3.4 Modelling and design
6.3.5 Detailing
6.4 Concrete to steel
6.4.1 Classification of interaction mechanisms
6.4.2 Bond of metal sheeting and profiles 
6.4.2.1 Metal sheeting
6.4.2.2 Steel profiles
6.4.2.3 Interface strength
6.4.2.4 Shear stress--slip relationships
6.4.2.5 Influence of the type of loading
 6.4.2.6 Determination of properties by testing
6.4.3 Mechanical interlock
6.4.3.1 Classification of devices
6.4.3.2 Strength evaluation
6.4.3.3 Force-shear slip constitutive relationships
6.4.3.4 Influence of the type of loading
6.4.3.5 Determination of properties by testing

7 Design

7.1 Conceptual design
7.1.1 General
7.1.2 Methodology
7.1.2.1 Input
7.1.2.2 Activities
7.1.2.3 The role of expertise, insight and tools
7.1.3 Structural concept and basis for design 
7.2 Structural analysis and dimensioning
7.2.1 General
7.2.2 Structural modelling
7.2.2.1 General
7.2.2.2 Geometric imperfections
7.2.2.3 Structural geometry
7.2.2.4 Calculation methods
7.2.3 Dimensioning values 
7.2.3.1 Concrete 
7.2.3.2 Reinforcing steel
7.2.3.3 Prestressing steel
7.2.4 Analysis of structural effects of time-dependent behaviour of concrete
7.2.4.1 General 
7.2.4.2 Levels of refinement of the analysis
7.2.4.3 Probabilistic and deterministic approach
7.2.4.4 Prediction models for concrete and significance of the analysis
7.2.4.5 Time-dependent analysis based on ageing linear viscoelasticity
7.2.4.6 Constitutive laws in ageing linear viscoelasticity
7.2.4.7 Simplified approaches for time-dependent analysis
7.2.4.8 Effective homogeneous concrete structures with rigid or stress-independent yielding of restraints
7.2.4.9 Effective homogeneous concrete structures with additional steel structural elements
7.2.4.10 Approximate algebraic formulation for the constitutive relation: age-adjusted effective modulus (AAEM) method
7.2.4.11 General method
7.3 Verification of structural safety (ULS) for predominantly static loading
7.3.1 General 
7.3.2 Bending with and without axial force
7.3.2.1 Beams, columns and slabs
7.3.2.2 Shells
7.3.3 Shear 
7.3.3.1 General
7.3.3.2 Members without shear reinforcement
7.3.3.3 Members with shear reinforcement 
7.3.3.4 Hollow core slabs
7.3.3.5 Shear between web and flanges of T-sections
7.3.3.6 Shear at the interface between concrete cast at different times 
7.3.4 Torsion
7.3.5 Punching
7.3.5.1 General
7.3.5.2 Design shear force, shear-resisting effective depth and control perimeter
7.3.5.3 Punching shear strength
7.3.5.4 Calculation of rotations around the supported area
7.3.5.5 Punching shear resistance outside the zones with shear reinforcement or shearheads 
7.3.5.6 Integrity reinforcement
7.3.6 Design with stress fields and strut-and-tie models
7.3.6.1 General 
7.3.6.2 Struts
7.3.6.3 Ties
7.3.6.4 Nodes
7.3.7 Compression members
7.3.7.1 Stability of compressed members in general
7.3.7.2 Biaxial eccentricities and out-of-plane buckling
7.3.8 Lateral instability of beams
7.3.9 3D solids
7.3.9.1 Stress limit requirements
7.3.9.2 Ductility requirements
7.4 Verification of structural safety (ULS) for non-static loading
7.4.1 Fatigue design
7.4.1.1 Scope
7.4.1.2 Analysis of stresses in reinforced and prestressed members under fatigue loading
7.4.1.3 Level II approximation: the simplified procedure
7.4.1.4 Level III approximation: verification by means of a single load level
7.4.1.5 Level IV approximation: verification by means of a spectrum of load levels 
7.4.1.6 Shear design
7.4.1.7 Increased deflections under fatigue loading in the SLS
7.4.2 Impact and explosion
7.4.2.1 General remarks
7.4.2.2 Determination of design loads 
7.4.2.3 Dimensioning for overall stresses
7.4.2.4 Structural detailing and other measures
7.4.3 Seismic design
7.4.3.1 Format of the verifications
7.4.3.2 Determination of seismic action effects through analysis
7.4.3.3 ULS verifications of inelastic flexural deformations
7.4.3.4 Cyclic plastic chord rotation capacity
7.4.3.5 Cyclic shear resistance at the ULS in members with shear reinforcement
7.4.3.6 ULS verification of joints between horizontal and vertical elements
 7.4.3.7 SLS verifications of flexural deformations
7.5 Verification of structural safety (ULS) for extreme thermal conditions
7.5.1 Fire design
7.5.1.1 Introduction
7.5.1.2 Fire design principles
7.5.1.3 Calculation method
7.5.1.4 Structural elements
7.5.1.5 Compartmentation
7.5.2 Cryogenic design
7.5.2.1 General
7.5.2.2 Design loads to be considered in the design of structures for refrigerated liquefied gases
7.5.2.3 Failure mechanisms to be regarded in the design of structures for storing refrigerated liquefied gases
7.5.2.4 Concrete material properties under cryogenic conditions 
7.6 Verification of serviceability (SLS) of RC and PC structures
7.6.1 Requirements 
7.6.2 Design criteria
7.6.3 Stress limitation 
7.6.3.1 Tensile stresses in the concrete
7.6.3.2 Limit state of decompression
7.6.3.3 Compressive stresses in the concrete
7.6.3.4 Steel stresses
7.6.4 Limit state of cracking
 7.6.4.1 Requirements 
7.6.4.2 Design criteria versus cracking
 7.6.4.3 Limitation of crack width
7.6.4.4 Calculation of crack width in reinforced concrete members
7.6.4.5 Calculation of crack width in prestressed concrete members
7.6.4.6 Control of cracking without calculation 
7.6.5 Limit states of deformation
7.6.5.1 General
7.6.5.2 Deformations due to bending with or without axial force
7.6.6 Vibrations
7.6.6.1 General
7.6.6.2 Vibrational behaviour 
7.6.7 Verification of serviceability limit state by numerical simulation
7.6.7.1 Fracture mechanics-based models
7.6.7.2 Tension stiffening-based models
7.7 Verification of safety and serviceability of FRC structures
7.7.1 Classification
7.7.2 Design principles
7.7.3 Verification of safety (ULS)
7.7.3.1 Bending and/or axial compression in linear members
7.7.3.2 Shear in beams
7.7.3.3 Torsion in beams
7.7.3.4 Walls
7.7.3.5 Slabs
7.7.4 Verification of serviceability (SLS)
7.7.4.1 Stress limitation
7.7.4.2 Crack width in members with conventional reinforcement
7.7.4.3 Minimum reinforcement for crack control
7.8 Verification of limit states associated with durability
7.8.1 General
7.8.2 Carbonation induced corrosion -- uncracked concrete
7.8.2.1 Probabilistic safety format
7.8.2.2 Partial safety factor format
7.8.2.3 Deemed-to-satisfy design
7.8.2.4 Avoidance-of-deterioration design
7.8.3 Chloride induced corrosion -- uncracked concrete
7.8.3.1 Probabilistic safety format
7.8.3.2 Partial safety factor format
7.8.3.3 Deemed-to-satisfy design
7.8.3.4 Avoidance-of-deterioration design
7.8.4 Influence of cracks upon reinforcement corrosion
7.8.5 Risk of depassivation with respect to prestressed steel
7.8.6 Freeze-thaw attack
7.8.6.1 Probabilistic safety format
7.8.6.2 Partial safety factor format
7.8.6.3 Deemed-to-satisfy approach
7.8.6.4 Avoidance-of-deterioration method
7.8.7 Chemical attack
7.8.7.1 Acid attack
7.8.7.2 Sulphate attack
7.8.8 Alkali--aggregate reactions 
7.8.8.1 Probabilistic safety format
7.8.8.2 Partial safety factor format
7.8.8.3 Deemed-to-satisfy approach
7.8.8.4 Avoidance-of-deterioration approach
7.8.9 Delayed ettringite formation
7.8.9.1 Probabilistic safety format
7.8.9.2 Partial safety factor format
7.8.9.3 Deemed-to-satisfy approach
7.8.9.4 Avoidance-of-deterioration approach
7.9 Verification of robustness
7.9.1 General
7.9.2 Specific methods to improve robustness by structural measures
7.9.2.1 Robustness by creating an alternative loading path
7.9.2.2 Capacity design
7.10 Verification of sustainability
7.10.1 Impact on environment
7.10.1.1 General
7.10.1.2 Verification
7.10.2 Impact on society
7.10.2.1 General
7.10.2.2 Verification
7.11 Verifications assisted by numerical simulations
7.11.1 Purpose
7.11.2 Methods of numerical simulation
7.11.2.1 Numerical model
7.11.2.2 Finite element method
7.11.2.3 Material models
7.11.2.4 Validation of numerical models
7.11.3 Safety formats for non-linear analysis
7.11.3.1 General
7.11.3.2 Probabilistic method
7.11.3.3 Global resistance methods
7.11.3.4 Partial factor method
7.11.4 Resistance parameter identification
7.12 Verification assisted by testing
7.12.1 Scope
7.12.2 Definition
7.12.3 Aims of verification assisted by testing
7.12.4 Requirements
7.12.5 Planning
7.12.5.1 Calculation model-limit states
7.12.5.2 Information on basic variables
7.12.5.3 Number of specimens
7.12.5.4 Scale effects
7.12.5.5 Actions
7.12.5.6 Origin of specimens
7.12.6 Testing conditions and measurements
7.12.6.1 Basic and nominal variables
7.12.6.2 Actions
7.12.6.3 Deformation -- structural behaviour
7.12.7 Laboratory report
7.12.8 Statistical analysis of test results
7.12.8.1 Estimation of the unknown coefficients D
7.12.8.2 Characteristic value
7.12.9 Verification procedure
7.12.9.1 Design values
7.12.9.2 Verification
7.13 Detailing
7.13.1 Basic principles
7.13.2 Positioning of reinforcement
7.13.2.1 General
7.13.2.2 Cover of reinforcement
7.13.2.3 Minimum bar spacing
7.13.2.4 Forms and bends
7.13.2.5 Anchorage
7.13.2.6 Lapped joints
7.13.2.7 Deviations and curvatures
7.13.3 Prestressed structures
7.13.3.1 Anchorage of prestressing wires and strands
7.13.4 Bearings and joints
7.13.5 Structural members
7.13.5.1 Unreinforced structural members
7.13.5.2 Beams and T-beams
7.13.5.3 Slabs
7.13.5.4 Compression members
7.13.6 Special aspects of precast concrete elements and composite structural members
7.13.6.1 General
7.13.6.2 Bearings
7.13.6.3 Mortar joints
7.13.6.4 Loop connections
7.13.6.5 Transverse stresses in the anchorage zone of prestressed tendons
7.14 Verification of anchorages in concrete

8 Construction

8.1 General 
8.2 Execution management
8.2.1 Assumptions
 8.2.2 Documentation
8.2.3 Quality management
8.3 Reinforcing steel works
8.3.1 Transportation and storage
8.3.2 Identification
8.3.3 Cutting and bending
8.3.4 Welding
8.3.5 Joints
8.3.6 Assembly and placing of the reinforcement
8.3.7 Construction documents -- reinforcement
8.4 Prestressing works
8.4.1 General
8.4.2 Packaging, transportation, storage and handling of materials and components
8.4.3 Prestressing works for post-tensioning tendons
8.4.3.1 Installation of tendons
8.4.3.2 Tensioning operations
8.4.3.3 Grouting of prestressing ducts
8.4.4 Prestressing works for pretensioning tendons
8.4.4.1 Installation of tendons
8.4.4.2 Tensioning operations 
8.4.4.3 Sealing
8.4.5 Replacement of tendons
8.4.6 Construction documents -- prestressing
8.5 Falsework and formwork
8.6 Concreting
8.6.1 Specification of concrete
8.6.2 Placing and compaction
8.6.3 Curing
8.6.4 Execution with precast concrete elements
8.6.5 Geometrical tolerances

9 Conservation

9.1 General
9.2 Conservation strategies and tactics
9.2.1 General
9.2.2 Strategy using proactive conservation measures
9.2.2.1 Condition based conservation
9.2.2.2 Time dependent conservation
9.2.3 Strategy using reactive conservation measures
9.2.4 Situations where conservation measures are not feasible
9.3 Conservation management
9.3.1 Through-life conservation process
9.3.2 Conservation plan
9.4 Condition survey
9.4.1 Condition survey and monitoring activities
9.5 Condition assessment
9.5.1 Identification of deterioration mechanisms and prediction of damage
9.5.2 Identification of deterioration mechanism
9.5.3 Factors influencing deterioration
9.5.4 Determination of deterioration level and rate
9.6 Condition evaluation and decision-making
9.6.1 General
9.6.2 Threshold levels for deterioration of material and/or structural performance
9.6.3 Judgement criteria
9.6.4 Selection of interventions
9.7 Interventions 
9.7.1 Maintenance interventions
9.7.2 Preventative interventions
9.7.3 Remedial interventions
9.7.4 Rebuild, reconstruction and replacement
9.7.5 Strengthening or upgrading interventions
9.7.6 Other activities and measures
9.7.7 Execution of interventions
9.8 Recording

10 Dismantlement

10.1 General
10.2 Preparing dismantlement
10.2.1 General
10.2.2 Consequence class of the structure
10.2.3 Structural analysis for dismantlement
10.2.4 Investigation of potential contamination
10.2.5 Waste disposal concept
10.2.6 Preparation report
10.3 Health and safety provisions
Index

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