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Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis

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Descripción

Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering: LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis provides a detailed discussion of traditional structural design perspectives, and serves as a state-of-the-art resource on the latest design and analysis of highway bridge superstructures. This book is applicable to highway bridges of all construction and material types, and is based on the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) philosophy.


Características

  • ISBN: 978-1-46-655218-0
  • Páginas: 963
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2014

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 15 a 30 Días

Contenido Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis

A How-To Guide for Bridge Engineers and Designers

Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering: LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis provides a detailed discussion of traditional structural design perspectives, and serves as a state-of-the-art resource on the latest design and analysis of highway bridge superstructures. This book is applicable to highway bridges of all construction and material types, and is based on the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) philosophy. It discusses the theory of probability (with an explanation leading to the calibration process and reliability), and includes fully solved design examples of steel, reinforced and prestressed concrete bridge superstructures. It also contains step-by-step calculations for determining the distribution factors for several different types of bridge superstructures (which form the basis of load and resistance design specifications) and can be found in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

Fully Realize the Basis and Significance of LRFD Specifications

Divided into six chapters, this instructive text:

    Introduces bridge engineering as a discipline of structural design
    Describes numerous types of highway bridge superstructures systems
    Presents a detailed discussion of various types of loads that act on bridge superstructures and substructures
    Discusses the methods of analyses of highway bridge superstructures
    Includes a detailed discussion of reinforced and prestressed concrete bridges, and slab-steel girder bridges

Highway Bridge Superstructure Engineering: LRFD Approaches to Design and Analysis can be used for teaching highway bridge design courses to undergraduate- and graduate-level classes, and as an excellent resource for practicing engineers.

 

Table Contents


Preface

Acknowledgments.

Chapter 1 Introduction.

1.1 Structural Design Philosophies
1.2 General Design Concepts
1.3 Fundamentals of Structural Design Philosophies
1.3.1 Design Philosophies Based on Elastic Behavior: Allowable/Working Stress Design
1.3.2 Design Philosophies Based on Inelastic Behavior: Plastic Design Method
1.4 Limit States Design Philosophies.
1.4.1 Concepts of Limit States
1.4.1.1 Strength Limit States
1.4.1.2 Serviceability Limit States
1.4.1.3 Fatigue Limit States
1.4.2 Strength Limit States versus Serviceability Limit States
1.4.3 Strength Design, Load Factor Design, and Load and Resistance Factor Design
1.4.4 Strength Design Philosophy
1.4.4.1 Strength Design Concept
1.4.4.2 Load Factor Design.
1.4.4.3 Load and Resistance Factor Design
1.5 LRFD Specifications for Highway Bridges.
1.5.1 Evolution of LRFD Specifications for the Design of Steel Buildings in the United States.
1.5.2 Evolution of LRFD Specifications for Highway Bridges in the United States
1.5.2.1 Why the Change from AASHTO Standard Specifications?
1.5.2.2 Why Probability-Based Design Philosophy?
1.5.3 Issues and Considerations for the Development of AASHTO LRFD Criteria
1.5.4 Probabilistic Basis of AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications
1.5.5 Statistical Nature of Loads and Resistances
1.5.5.1 Random Variables, Normal and Lognormal Distributions, and Probability.
1.5.5.2 Properties and Applications of Normal (Gaussian) Distribution
1.5.5.3 Linear Functions of Random Variables: Central Limit Theorem (CLT, Normal Convergence Theorem)
1.5.6 Probabilistic Determination of Safety Factors
1.5.6.1 Probabilistic Concept of Safety: Limit State Function (Performance Function)
1.5.6.2 Development of AISC LRFD Criteria
1.5.6.3 Development of AASHTO LRFD Criteria.
1.5.6.4 Calibration Procedure
1.5.6.5 Calibration of Load and Resistance Factors.
1.5.7 AASHTO LRFD Specifications Format of Load and Resistance Relationship
1.5.7.1 Loads, Resistance, and Factor of Safety.
1.6 Differences between Various Design Methods: Summary
1.6.1 Difference between the Design Methods Based on the Elastic and Inelastic Material Behavior.
1.6.2 Difference between Plastic Design, Strength Design, Load Factor Design, and Load and Resistance Factor Design.
1.7 Historical Review of AASHTO Specifications for Highway Bridges
1.8 AASHTO LRFD Highway Bridge Design Specifications and Design Philosophies.
1.9 AASHTO Interim Specifications
1.10 Scope of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.
1.11 Commentary to AASHTO LRFD Specifications.
1.12 General Comments.
1.A Appendix
References.

Chapter 2 Highway Bridge Superstructure Systems

2.1 Introduction.
2.2 AASHTO LRFD Spec.-Specific Highway Bridge Superstructures
2.3 Description and Design Characteristics of Superstructure Systems in Table 2.1
2.3.1 RC Deck over Steel Wide Flange Beams of Plate Girders (Type a)
2.3.2 Spread-Box Beam Superstructure (Type b)
2.3.3 Open Steel or Precast Concrete Box Superstructure (Type c)
2.3.4 Cast-in-Place Concrete Multicell Box Girder (Type d)
2.3.5 Cast-in-Place RC T-Beam Superstructure (Type e)
2.3.6 Adjacent-Prestressed Concrete Box Superstructure (Type f )
2.3.7 Adjacent-Prestressed Concrete Box Superstructure with Integral Concrete Deck with or without Transverse Posttensioning (Type g)
2.3.8 Precast Concrete Channel Sections with Shear Keys and Concrete Overlay (Type h)
2.3.9 Precast Concrete Double-T Girders with Shear Keys, and with or without Transverse Posttensioning and Integral Concrete Deck (Type i)
2.3.10 Precast Concrete Single-T Girders with Shear Keys, and with or without Transverse Posttensioning and Integral Concrete Deck (Type j)
2.3.11 RC Deck over Prestressed I-Beams or Bulb-T Girders (Type k)
2.3.12 Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Highway Superstructure Systems
2.4 Diaphragms
2.4.1 Definition of a Diaphragm
2.4.2 Diaphragms in Building Structures
2.4.3 Diaphragms in Bridge Superstructures
2.4.3.1 ASSHTO Standard Specifications for Diaphragms
2.4.3.2 AASHTO LRFD Specifications for Diaphragms and Cross-Frames.
2.5 Bridge Site and Geometry
2.5.1 Bridge Type, Size, and Location.
2.5.2 Bridge Width
2.5.3 Normal and Skewed Bridges
2.6 Deflections
2.6.1 Historical Review of Deflection Limitations
2.6.2 Purpose of Limiting Bridge Deflections
2.6.3 Criteria for Live Load Deflections
2.6.4 Optional Criteria for Span-to-Depth Ratios
2.6.4.1 Optional Deflection Criteria for Constant Depth Superstructures
2.6.4.2 Optional Deflection Criteria for Curved Steel Superstructures
2.6.5 Deflections Due to Dead Loads
2.6.6 Calculation of Live Load Deflections.
2.7 Consideration of Future Widening
2.8 Constructability
2.9 Bridge Esthetics
References

Chapter 3 Loads on Highway Bridge Structures

3.1 Introduction
3.2 AASHTO LRFD Highway Bridge Design Philosophy.
3.2.1 Limit States Concept
3.2.2 Loads and Load Designations
3.2.3 Load Factors and Load Combinations for Design Loads.
3.2.4 Selection of Design-Specific Limit States, Load Modifiers, Load Combinations, and Load Factors
3.3 Load Factors and Load Combinations for Construction Loads
3.3.1 Evaluation at the Strength Limit States
3.3.2 Evaluation of Deflection at the Service Limit State
3.3.3 Load Factors for Jacking and Posttensioning Forces
3.3.3.1 Jacking Forces.
3.3.3.2 Force for Posttensioning Anchorage Zones..
3.4 Components of a Highway Bridge Structure
3.5 Dead Loads on a Highway Bridge Superstructure.
3.5.1 General.
3.5.2 Dead Load Due to Deck Slab
3.5.3 Dead Load Due to Girders
3.6 Construction Loads
3.7 Live Loads on Highway Bridge Superstructures
3.7.1 Historical Perspective
3.7.2 Development of AASHTO Standard Specifications Live Load Model
3.7.3 Description of AASHTO LRFD Notional Live Load Model
3.7.4 Understanding the Development of AASHTO LRFD Notional Live Load Model.
3.7.4.1 Concept of Notional Load: What Is It?
3.7.4.2 Commercial Vehicular Loads.
3.7.4.3 Development of AASHTO LRFD Notional Live Load: A Brief History.
3.7.4.4 Permit Loads
3.7.5 Application of Design Vehicular Live Loads on Bridge Superstructures
3.7.5.1 Position of Live Load on Simple Spans
3.7.5.2 Position of Vehicular Live Loads on Continuous Spans
3.7.6 Bending Moments and Shears Due to Moving Loads on Simple Spans
3.7.6.1 Bending Moments
3.7.6.2 Influence Lines for Absolute Maximum Bending Moments in Simple Spans
3.7.7 Generalized Expressions for Maximum Moment and Maximum Shear at a Section in a Simple Span Due to HS20 Truck.
3.7.7.1 Maximum Moment and Shear: HS20 Truck Moving from Left to Right
3.7.7.2 Maximum Moment and Shear: HS20 Truck Moving from Right to Left.
3.7.8 Absolute Maximum Bending Moment in Spans Due to Loads Other than AASHTO HS20 Truck
3.7.9 Governing Span Lengths for Maximum Live Load Shear in Simple Spans Due to AASHTO LRFD Live Load: HS20 Truck and Tandem
3.7.10 Influence Lines for Beams with Other Support Conditions and for Other Types of Structures
3.8 Dynamic Effects of Vehicular Live Load
3.8.1 General Considerations for Dynamic Force Effects: Dynamic Load Allowance
3.8.2 Research on Quantification of Dynamic Load Effects
3.8.3 AASHTO LRFD Specifications for Dynamic Load Allowance
3.8.4 Exceptions to Application of Dynamic Load Effects.
3.9 Fatigue Loading
3.9.1 Fatigue Phenomenon
3.9.2 Magnitude and Configuration of Live Load for Fatigue Considerations
3.9.3 Formulas for Maximum Moment and Shear for Fatigue Limit State Loading
3.9.3.1 Maximum Moment for Fatigue Limit State
3.9.3.2 Maximum Shear for Fatigue Limit State
3.9.4 Frequency of Loading for Fatigue Design Considerations.
3.9.5 Application of ADTTSL for Determination of Fatigue Limit State
3.10 Pedestrian Loads
3.10.1 Significance of Pedestrian Loading
3.10.2 Live Load Due to Sidewalks on Vehicular Bridges
3.10.3 Live Load on Pedestrian and/or Bicycle Bridges
3.11 Application of Design Live Loads on a Bridge Superstructure
3.11.1 Design Live Loads for Longitudinal Beams
3.11.2 Live Load for Deflection Considerations
3.11.3 Design Live Load for Decks, Deck Systems, and Top Slabs of Box Culverts
3.11.4 Live Load on Deck Overhangs
3.11.5 Force Effects Due to Live Load in Multiple Traffic Lanes: Multiple Presence of Live Load.
3.12 Design Live Loads in Longitudinal Girders Supporting Bridge Decks
3.13 Envelopes for Moment and Shear Values
3.14 Tire Contact Area
3.14.1 Point Load versus Distributed Load
3.14.2 AASHTO LRFD Specifications for Tire Contact Area
3.15 Rail Transit Loads
3.16 Centrifugal Force (CE)
3.17 Braking Force (BR)
3.17.1 Magnitude of Braking Force
3.17.2 Application of Braking Forces on a Bridge
3.18 Vehicular Collision Force (CT)
3.18.1 Nature, Causes, and Magnitude of Collision Forces..
3.18.2 Protection of Structures from Vehicular Collision Force, CT
3.18.3 Protection of Structures from Vessel Collision Force, CV.
3.19 Ice and Snow Loads
3.19.1 Ice Loads: General
3.19.2 Dynamic Ice Forces on Piers
3.19.2.1 Ice Floes and Modes of Failures.
3.19.2.2 Effective Ice Crushing Strength
3.19.2.3 Horizontal Force from Flexing of Moving Ice
3.19.2.4 Influence of Directionality of Ice Forces and the Pier Nose Profile on the Magnitude of Forces Acting on the Pier
3.19.3 Snow Loads
3.20 Wind Loads (WL and WS)
3.20.1 Wind Effects on Structures
3.20.2 Magnitude of Horizontal Wind Pressure
3.20.3 Variation in Wind Velocity with Height.
3.20.4 Estimation of Wind Loads
3.20.5 Wind Pressure on Structure (WS)
3.20.6 Wind Pressure on Live Load (WL)
3.21 Earthquake Forces (EQ)
3.21.1 Evolution of Earthquake-Resistant Design Provisions in AASHTO Bridge Design Specifications
3.21.2 Philosophy for Design Basis Earthquake Forces
3.21.3 Determination of Seismic Forces: Fundamental Concepts
3.21.4 AASHTO LRFD Specifications Provisions for Seismic Design of Bridges
3.21.4.1 Seismic Design Philosophy
3.21.4.2 Site Class Characterization
3.21.4.3 Determination of Elastic Seismic Response Coefficient, Csm
3.21.4.4 Determination of Acceleration Coefficients
3.21.4.5 Design Basis Earthquake.
3.21.4.6 Seismic Hazard Characterization: Design Response Spectrum
3.21.4.7 Operational Classification
3.21.4.8 Response Modification Factors
3.21.5 Application of Earthquake Forces for Design of Structural Members and Connections in Highway Bridges
3.21.6 Determination of Design Basis Earthquake Forces
3.21.6.1 General.
3.21.6.2 Single-Span Bridges
3.21.6.3 Calculation of Design Connection Forces for Bridges in Various Seismic Zones
3.21.7 Determination of Fundamental Period, T
3.21.7.1 Single-Mode Spectral Analysis Method (SM): Procedure 1
3.21.7.2 Other Methods of Analysis.
3.22 Earth Pressure: EH, ES, LS, and DD
3.22.1 General
3.22.2 Determination of Earth Pressure.
3.22.2.1 Basic Concepts of Earth Pressure
3.22.3 Theories and Calculations of Earth Pressures.
3.22.3.1 Theories of Earth Pressures
3.22.3.2 Calculations of Coefficients of Earth Pressures
3.22.4 Equivalent-Fluid Method of Estimating Rankine’s Lateral Earth Pressures
3.22.5 Selection of Backfill Material.
3.22.6 Effects of Surcharge Loads: ES and LS.
3.22.6.1 Nature of Surcharge Loads.
3.22.6.2 Uniform Surcharge Loads (ES)
3.22.6.3 Point, Line, and Strip Loads (ES)
3.22.6.4 Effects of Live Load Surcharge Loads: LS
3.22.6.5 Downdrag: DD
3.22.7 Seismic Earth Pressure.
3.23 Force Effects Due to Superimposed Deformations: TU, TG, SH, CR, SE, and PS.
3.23.1 General.
3.23.2 Temperature-Induced Forces
3.23.3 Temperature-Induced Forces Due to Uniform Temperature
3.23.4 AASHTO LRFD Provisions for Design Unidirectional Thermal Movements
3.23.5 Forces Induced by Temperature Gradient.
3.23.5.1 Nature of Heat Flow Problem: Thermal Gradient
3.23.5.2 Effect of Nonlinear Temperature Variation.
3.23.5.3 AASHTO LRFD Provisions for Thermal Gradient Analysis
3.24 Miscellaneous Forces for Design Considerations.
3.25 Friction Forces: FR.
3.A Appendix.
References.

Chapter 4 Structural Analysis of Highway Bridge Superstructures

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Load Path in Bridge Structures
4.3 Analysis for Dead Load on Bridge Superstructures
4.4 Methods of Structural Analysis for Live Load on Bridge Superstructures
4.5 Approximate Analysis Methods for Live Loads: The Distribution Factor Concept
4.6 Considerations for Live Load Distribution Factors for Common Types of Bridge Superstructures
4.6.1 General Approach.
4.6.2 Lever Rule
4.6.3 Applicability Criteria for LRFD Live Load Distribution Factors.
4.6.3.1 Superstructures with Constant Deck Width and Parallel Girders.
4.6.3.2 Superstructures with Varying Deck Width and Splayed Girders
4.6.4 Influence of Multiple Loaded Lanes
4.6.4.1 Number of Design or Traffic Lanes on a Bridge
4.6.4.2 Influence of Multiple Design/Traffic Lanes on Girders Supporting the Deck
4.6.4.3 Position of Wheel Loads on Bridge Deck with Respect to Girders
4.7 Calculations of Distribution Factors for Beams/Girders of Typical Superstructures
4.7.1 Formulas for Distribution Factors
4.7.2 Distribution Factors for Interior Girders
4.7.2.1 Bending Moment.
4.7.2.2 Live Load Distribution Factors for Shear
4.7.3 Live Load Distribution Factors for Exterior Girders.
4.7.3.1 Influence of Diaphragms on Distribution Factors for Exterior Girders
4.7.3.2 Distribution Factors for Bending Moment
4.7.3.3 Distribution Factors for Shear
4.8 Special Analysis for Distribution Factors for Bending Moments and Shears in Exterior Girders
4.9 Correction Factors for Bridge Skew
4.10 Distribution Factors for Fatigue Limit State
4.11 Distribution Factors for Deflection Limit State
4.12 Illustrative Examples: Distribution Factors for Bending Moment and Shear
4.13 Application of Live Distribution Factors for Design Purposes
4.14 Distribution Factors for Special Loads with Other Traffic Loads.
4.15 Live Load Distribution Factors for Bending Moments and Shear in Transverse Floor Beams
4.16 Methods of Refined Analysis
4.17 Distribution of Lateral Loads in Multibeam Bridges
4.17.1 General
4.17.2 Lateral Wind Load Distribution in Multibeam Bridges
4.17.2.1 Load Path for Lateral Wind Load
4.17.2.2 Determination of Forces and Bending Moments Due to Lateral Wind Load
4.17.3 Seismic Load Distribution in Multibeam Bridges.
4.17.3.1 Load Path for Earthquake Forces in Multibeam Bridges
4.17.3.2 Design Criteria
4.17.3.3 Earthquake Load Distribution
4.18 Analysis of Concrete Slabs and Slab-Type Bridges for LRFD Live Loads
4.18.1 General.
4.18.1.1 Slab-Type Bridges
4.18.1.2 Concrete Decks
4.18.2 Analysis of Slab-Type Bridges
4.18.2.1 General
4.18.2.2 LRFD Provisions for the Analysis of Slab-Type Bridges: The Approximate Strip Model
4.18.3 Analysis of Deck Systems
4.18.3.1 General
4.18.3.2 Calculation of Force Effects
4.18.4 Deflection Analysis of Slab Bridges
4.18.4.1 General
4.18.4.2 Influence of Cracking of Concrete Sections under Service Loads
4.18.4.3 Long-Term Deflections
4.A Appendix.
References

Chapter 5 Concrete Bridges.

5.1 Introduction.
5.2 Concrete Bridges and Aesthetics
5.3 Corrosion of Concrete Bridges
5.3.1 Reinforcing Bar Corrosion Problem
5.3.2 Mitigation of Corrosion Problem
5.3.2.1 Treated Reinforcing Steel
5.3.2.2 Concrete Cover for Reinforcing Steel
5.3.3 General Protective Requirements
5.4 Material Properties
5.4.1 Concrete for Bridge Construction
5.4.1.1 General
5.4.1.2 Normal-Weight and Structural Lightweight Concrete
5.4.1.3 Coefficient or Thermal Expansion
5.4.1.4 Shrinkage and Creep
5.4.1.5 Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete
5.4.1.6 Modulus of Rupture
5.4.2 High-Strength Concrete and Bridge Span Capabilities.
5.4.3 Reinforcing Steel (Art. 5.4.3)
5.4.3.1 General
5.4.3.2 Reinforcing Bars
5.4.4 Prestressing Steel: Art. 5.4.4
5.4.4.1 General
5.4.4.2 Modulus of Elasticity of Prestressing Steels: Art. 5.4.4.2
5.4.4.3 Relaxation of Steel
5.4.5 Strength Limit State
5.4.5.1 General
5.4.5.2 Resistance Factors (ϕ-factors)
5.5 Design Procedures for Flexure in Section 5 of LRFD Specifications
5.5.1 Assumption for Service and Fatigue Limit States: Art. 5.7.1
5.5.2 Assumptions for Strength and Extreme-Event Limit States
5.5.2.1 General
5.5.2.2 Rectangular Stress Distribution: Art. 5.7.2.2
5.5.3 Flexural Members
5.5.3.1 General
5.5.3.2 Nominal Flexural Resistance of Concrete Members with Nonprestressed Reinforcement
5.5.3.3 Nominal Flexural Resistance of Prestressed Concrete Members
5.5.3.4 Flexural Resistance: Art. 5.7.3.2
5.6 Limits of Reinforcement: Art. 5.7.3.3
5.6.1 Provisions for Maximum Reinforcement
5.6.2 Provisions for Minimum Reinforcement: Art. 5.7.3.3.2
5.7 Control of Cracking by Distribution of Reinforcement: Art. 5.7.3.4
5.8 Service Limit State
5.8.1 Service Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Sections
5.8.2 Deformations: Art. 5.7.3.6
5.8.2.1 General Requirements
5.8.3 Deflection and Camber.
5.9 Fatigue Limit State
5.9.1 General
5.9.2 Stress Limits for Stresses Due to Fatigue
5.9.2.1 Reinforcing Bars
5.9.2.2 Prestressing Tendons
5.9.2.3 Welded or Mechanical Splices
5.10 Shea
5.10.1 General.
5.10.2 Check for Shear near Supports.
5.10.3 Nominal Shear Resistance of a Concrete Section
5.10.3.1 General
5.10.3.2 LRFD Procedures for Designing for Shear
5.10.4 Reinforcement for Shear Resistance: Regions Requiring Transverse Reinforcement
5.10.5 Minimum Transverse Reinforcement
5.10.6 Maximum Spacing of Transverse Reinforcement
5.10.7 Shear Stress on Concrete
5.10.8 Tensile Capacity of Longitudinal Reinforcement: Art. 5.8.3.5
5.11 Estimating the Area of Required Nonprestressed Tensile Reinforcement
in Concrete Sections.
5.12 Slab-Type Concrete Bridges and Concrete Decks
5.13 Concrete Decks.
5.13.1 General.
5.13.2 Minimum Depth and Cover Requirements
5.13.3 Composite Action between Decks and Supporting Beams.
5.13.4 Skewed Decks
5.13.5 Edge Support Requirements
5.13.6 Design of Cantilever Slabs
5.13.7 Design Procedures for Deck Slabs.
5.13.7.1 Empirical Design Method
5.13.7.2 Traditional Design Method
5.13.8 Empirical Design versus Traditional Design
5.14 Design Examples
5.15 Design of Reinforced Concrete T-Beam Superstructures
5.16 Design of Deck Overhang and Barrier Walls
5.16.1 General
5.16.2 Traffic Railing Design Forces and Design Criteria
5.16.3 Yield Line Analysis for Concrete Traffic Barriers or Parapets
5.17 Slab-Precast, Prestressed Concrete Bridges
5.17.1 Introduction
5.17.2 Characteristics of Prestressed Concrete Bridges.
5.17.2.1 Use of High-Strength Concrete
5.17.2.2 Shapes, Sizes, and Uses of Precast, Prestressed Concrete Girders
5.17.3 Concepts of Prestressing
5.17.4 Pretensioned and Posttensioned Girders
5.17.5 Layout and Location of the Center of Gravity of Multiple Strands in a Prestressed Girder
5.17.6 Design of a Prestressed Concrete Girder for a Highway Bridge.
5.A Appendix
References.

Chapter 6 Slab–Steel Girder Bridges

6 Slab–Steel Girder Bridges
6.1 Introduction.
6.2 Structural Forms and Characteristics of Steel Bridges.
6.2.1 Common Forms of Slab–Steel Beam Bridges
6.2.2 Orthotropic Steel Bridges
6.2.3 Composite Steel Box Girder Bridges
6.2.4 Delta Frame Steel Bridges.
6.3 Corrosion of Steel Bridges.
6.4 Construction Considerations.
6.5 Mechanical Properties of Steel for Highway Bridges
6.6 Hybrid Steel Girders.
6.7 Noncomposite and Composite Sections
6.7.1 Noncomposite Sections.
6.7.2 Composite Sections
6.7.3 Section Properties of Noncomposite and Composite Sections.
6.8 Shored and Unshored Construction
6.8.1 Sequence of Loading during Construction.
6.8.2 Shored Construction
6.8.3 Unshored Construction
6.9 Resistance Factors
6.10 Design Provisions for I-Section Flexural Members
6.10.1 General
6.10.1.1 General Format for LRFD Specifications for Steel Superstructures.
6.10.1.2 Sequence of Loading and Elastic Stresses
6.10.1.3 Flange-Strength Reduction Factors
6.10.2 Cross-Section Proportion Limits
6.10.2.1 Minimum Metal Thickness (LRFD Art. 7.7.3)
6.10.2.2 Web Proportion Limits (LRFD 6.10.2.1)
6.10.2.3 Flange Proportion (LRFD Art. 6.10.2.2)
6.10.3 Constructibility Requirements (LRFD Art. 6.10.3)
6.10.3.1 General
6.10.3.2 Dead Load Deflection and Camber.
6.10.3.3 Instability of I-Beams: The Lateral-Torsional- Buckling Phenomenon
6.10.3.4 Lateral-Torsional Buckling and Bracing of Beams.
6.10.3.5 Flange Stresses and Member Bending Moments
6.10.3.6 Moment Gradient Modifier, Cb.
6.10.3.7 Flange Stresses and Member Bending Moments:
Critical Stages of Construction
6.10.4 Considerations for Service Limit State
6.10.4.1 Permanent Deformations.
6.10.4.2 General.
6.10.4.3 Flange Stresses
6.10.5 Special Fatigue Requirements for Webs.
6.10.6 Design Requirements for Strength Limit State
6.10.6.1 General.
6.10.6.2 Composite Sections in Positive Flexure
6.10.6.3 Composite Sections in Negative Flexure and Noncomposite Sections
6.10.7 Flexural Resistance of Composite and Noncomposite Sections in Positive Flexure: Strength Limit State.
6.10.7.1 Compact Sections in Positive Flexure
6.10.7.2 Noncompact Sections
6.10.7.3 Ductility Requirements: Art. 6.10.7.3.
6.10.8 Flexural Resistance: Compact Sections in Negative Flexure and Noncomposite Sections—Strength Limit State.
6.10.8.1 General Requirements
6.10.8.2 Compression Flange Flexural Resistance: Art. 6.10.8.2.1
6.10.9 Shear Resistance.
6.10.9.1 General: Shear Strength of Steel Girders
6.10.9.2 Nominal Resistance of Unstiffened Webs
6.10.9.3 Nominal Resistance of Stiffened Webs: Interior Panels
6.10.9.4 Shear Resistance of End Panels
6.10.10 Shear Connectors
6.10.10.1 Role of Shear Connectors
6.10.10.2 Types and Sizes of Shear Connectors
6.10.10.3 Fatigue Limit State: Loads for Fatigue Limit State
6.10.10.4 Fatigue Resistance of Shear Connectors: LRFD Art. 6.10.10.2
6.10.10.5 Pitch of Shear Connectors (Art. 6.10.10.1.2)
6.10.10.6 Design of Shear Connectors for Strength Limit State (Art. 6.10.10.4)
6.10.10.7 Strength of Shear Connectors
6.10.10.8 LRFD Provisions for Providing Shear Connectors.
6.10.11 Stiffeners
6.10.11.1 Definitions and Description of Stiffeners
6.10.11.2 Web Bend-Buckling Resistance
6.10.11.3 Design of Transverse Stiffeners
6.10.11.4 Design for Bearing Stiffeners.
6.10.11.5 Design for Longitudinal Stiffeners
6.10.12 Cover Plates
6.11 Fatigue and Fracture Considerations.
6.11.1 General.
6.11.2 Classification of Fatigue
6.11.3 Design for Load-Induced Fatigue.
6.11.3.1 Design Considerations
6.11.3.2 Design Criteria.
6.11.3.3 Detail Categories
6.11.3.4 Detailing to Reduce Constraint
6.11.3.5 Fatigue Resistance
6.12 Design of Noncomposite Slab–Steel Girder Superstructures
6.13 Composite Slab–Steel Beam Superstructures
6.13.1 Introduction to Composite Construction
6.13.2 Flexural Strength of Composite Sections
6.13.2.1 Stress Distribution in Composite Beams in Positive Flexure.
6.13.2.2 Stress Distribution in Composite Beams in NegativeFlexure.
6.13.2.3 Locating Plastic Neutral Axis of a Composite Section in Positive Flexure
6.13.3 Effective Flange Width.
6.13.4 AASHTO Procedure for Determining the Plastic Neutral Axis and Plastic Moment Strength of a Composite Section: LRFD
Appendix D6, Art. D6.1.
6.13.5 Examples on Determination of Plastic Moment Strength, Mp
6.13.5.1 Yield Moment of Noncomposite Sections: LRFD Art. 6.2.1
6.13.5.2 Yield Moment of Composite Sections in Positive Flexure: LRFD Art. D6.2.2.
6.13.5.3 Yield Moment of Composite Sections in Negative Flexure: LRFD Art. D6.2.3.
6.13.5.4 Yield Moment of Composite Sections with Cover Plates: LRFD Art. D6.2.4.
6.13.6 Depth of the Web in Compression: LRFD Art. D6.3
6.13.6.1 Depth of the Web in Compression in the Elastic Region (Dc): LRFD Art. D6.3.1
6.13.6.2 Depth of the Web in Compression at Plastic Moment (Dcp): LRFD Art. D6.3.2
6.14 Design of Composite Slab-Girder Superstructures
6.A Appendix
 

References
Index.


 

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