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Rock Mechanics Based on an Anisotropic Jointed Rock Model (AJRM)



This book focuses on the fundamentals of rock mechanics as a basis for the safe and economical design and construction of tunnels, dam foundations and slopes in jointed and anisotropic rock. It is divided into four main parts:


  • ISBN: 978-3-433-03079-0
  • Páginas: 9000
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2014

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Contenido Rock Mechanics Based on an Anisotropic Jointed Rock Model (AJRM)

This book focuses on the fundamentals of rock mechanics as a basis for the safe and economical design and construction of tunnels,
dam foundations and slopes in jointed and anisotropic rock.
It is divided into four main parts:

- Fundamentals and models
- Analysis and design methods
- Exploration, testing and monitoring
- Applications and case histories.

The rock mechanical models presented account for the influence of discontinuities on the stress-strain behavior and the permeability of jointed rock masses.
This book is for:
- Civil- and Mining-Engineers
- Geologists
- Students in the related fields

Table Contents

Part A: Fundamentals and Models

Structure of Rock

- Introduction
- Rock Ground
- Intact Rock
- Faults
- Folds
- Discontinuities
- Rock Mass
  - Examples
  - Description of Discontinuities
  - Structural Models
Stress-Strain Behavior of Jointed Rock

- Introduction
- Intact Rock
  - Elastic Behaviour
  - Stress and Failure criteria
  - Post-Failure Behavior
  - Intact Rock with deviations from elastic-viscoplastic
  - Stress.Strain Behaviour
- Discontinuities
  - Types of discontinuities
  - Stess-Displacement behaviour of discontinuities loaded by a normal stress and shear stress
- Rock Mass
  - Discrete Model
  - Homogeneous Model
  - Combination of the Homogeneous model with discrete models of individual discontinuities

Squeezing Rock

- Introduction
- Phenomenon
- Yielding Support
- Convergence-Confinement method
- Example of a tunnel in squeezing rock
  - Statement of problem,Analysis model,Parament and analyzed Cases
  - Reference Case
  - Influence of residual Strengh
  - Influence of Supporting Pressure
  - Conclusions

Rock Salt

- Introduction
- Stress-Strain Behaviour
- Validation of Model

Permeability and Seepage Flow

- Introduction
- Porous intact rock
  - Porosity
  - Darcy´s law and Permeability
- Discontinuities
  - Laminar Flow
  - Turbulent Flow
- Rock Mass
  - Discrete model
  - Homogeneous model
  - Seepage force and Hydrostatic Uplift

Coupling of Stress-Strain Behavior and Seepage Flow

- Introduction
- Permeability of a Discontinuity as a function of stress
  - Permeability of a discontinuity as a function of normal stress
  - Permeability of a discontinuity as a function of normal compressive stress and shear stress
- Rock Mass
  - Discrete Model
  - Homogeneous Model
Swelling Rock

- Introduction
- Swelling Mechanisms
- Water Uptake
- Swelling
- Coupled Model
- Characteristic Parameters of the Gypsum Keuper
- Gypsum Keuper in its Natural Condition
- Calibration of Model

Rock Mass In Situ Stress

- Introduction
- Stresses fue to gravity
  - Horizontal ground Surface
  - Influence of Topography
- Tectonic Stresses
- Stresses due to Pre-loading and Subsequent Unloading
- Residual Stresses
- Effect of Rock Mass Inhomogeneity

Part B: Analysis and Design Methods

Finite Element Method (FEM)

- Introduction
- The Principle of FEM
- Element Types
   - Three-Dimensional Ispaparemetric Elements
   - Truss Elements
   - Spring Elements
- Computation Section
- Stress-Strain Analysus
   - Boundary Conditions
   - Simulation of Constructions Stages
   - Evaluation of Stress Result
   - Simulations of support Measures
   - Representation of Results
   - Examples
- Seepage Flow Analysis
   - Boundary conditions
   - Representation of results
   - Example
- FEM Program Systems and related Modules Provides by WBI
   - Program System FEST03
   - Program System HYD03

Stability of Rock Wedges and Excavation Surfaces

- Introduction
- Potencial Failure Modes of Rock Wedges
- Stability of Rock wedges againist sliding
  - Two-Dimensional Rock Wedges
  - Three-Dimensional Rock Wedges
- Stability of rock wedges against rotation
- Stability of rock multiple rock blocks
- Stability of rock columns and layers against buckling

Design Methods

- Introduction
- Design based on rock mechanical models
- Design methods based on the assessment of the rock mass behaviour
- Design based on classification systems
- Flaws and deficiencies of classification systems
- Case history road tunnel osterfeld
- Conclusions

Part C: Exploration, Testing and Monitoring

Site Investigation

- Introduction
- Evaluation of documents
- Rock expusures
- Test Pits
- Boreholes
  - Core Drilling
  - Observation of Borehole Walls
  - Borehole Direction
  - Geophysical Logging
- Exploration Adits and Shafts
- Test Excavations
- Exploration During Construction
- Mapping of rock surfaces
  - Mapping Techniques
  - Mapping Evaluation
- Evaluation of a Structural Model

Laboratory Tests

- Introduction
- Petrographic Investigations
- Water Content,Density,Porosity and related Properties
- Deformability and Strength of Intact Rock
  - Uniaxial Compresion Test
  - Triaxial Compresion Test
  - Brazilian Test
  - Other Tests
- Shear Strength of Discontinuities
- Swelling
- Slake Durability and disintegration Resistance
- Abrasiveness

Field Tests

- Introduction
- Borehole Expansion Tests
  - Isotropic Rock Mass
  - Transversely Isotropic rock
- Plate loading tests
- Flat jack tests
  - Isotropic Rock Mass
  - Transversely Isotropic rock mass
- Triaxial Tests
- Gallery Tests
- Direct Shear Tests
- Permeability Tests
  - Standard Packer Tests ( Lugeon Tests  )
  - Other Methods of Permeability testing

Stress Measurements

- Introduction
- Stress Refief
  - Triaxial Cells
  - Borehone Deformation Cells
  - Doorstopper
  - Conical Strain Cell
  - Borehole Slotter
  - Borehole Wall Stress Relief Method
- Stiff Inclusion
- Compensation Method
- Hydraulic Methods
  - Hydraulic fracturing ( HF)
  - Hydraulic testing of Pre-Existing Fractures ( HTPF )
- Methods of large Scale In.situ Stress Determination
- Case Studies
  - Underground Powerhouse Cavern
  - Construction Pit
- The World Stress Map Project- Results of Stress Measurements


- Introduction
- Geodetic Measurements
- Monitoring of Vertical Displacements on the Ground Surface
- Monitoring of Rock Displacement along Boreholes
   - Monitoring of Displacements Parafell to the Borehole Axis
   - Monitoring of Displacements Normal to the Borehole Axis
   - Three-Dimensional Monitoring of Displacements along  Boreholes
- Monitoring of relative Displacements between rock surfaces
- Presure Monitoring
- Anchor Force Measurements
- Monitoring of water level and water Pressure
- Automatic Data Acquisition
- Examples
   - Monitoring Section in a Tunnel
   - Monitoring Program for the Observation of a Rock Slide

Evaluation of Rock Mechanical Parameters

- General Procedure
- Examples
Examples of Testing and Monitoring Programs

Urban Railway Stuttgart Hasenberg Tunnel construction Lot 15. Exploration Shaft and Adits
Urban Railway Stuttgart Hasenberg Tunnel construction Lot 11. Exploration Shaft and Adits

Part D: Applications and Case Histories

NATM Tunneling

- Introduction
- Fundamental of the NATM
  - Excavation Classes
  - Construction of the Shotcrete Membrane
  - Shotcrete
  - Steel Sets
  - Rock Bolts
  - Advancing Support
- Tunneling under Stuttgart Airport Runway
  - Project
  - Ground and Groundwater Conditions
  - Experience Gained from Other Tunnels Located in the Lias a Formation
  - Fundamentals of the Design
  - Stability Analyses
  - Excavation and Support
  - Back Analyses of Monitoring Results

TBM Tunneling

- Fundamentals
  - Introduction
  - Shielded TBM
  - Gripper TBM
  - Lining Concepts
- Stability of the Temporary face and Shield Design,Example
  - Project
  - Ground and Groundwater Conditions
  - Project History
  - Contract,Technology and Problems
  - Reason for the Delay and Cost Increase
  - Measures for Improvement
  - Conclusions
- Shield Design,Example
  - Statement of Problem
  - Investigated Cases
  - Seepage Flow Analysis Assumptions
  - Stability Analyses Assumptions and Computation Steps
  - Analysis Results
  - Conclusions
- Stability and Permeability Changes of the rock mass in the Machine,Area,Example
- Design of the Segmental Lining,Examples

Powerhouse Cavern Estangento-Sallente

- Project
- Site Investigation and Testing Prior to Construction
  - Site Investigation
  - Discontinuities
  - Testing
- Location of the Powerhouse Cavern
- Rock Mechanical Model
- Stability Analyses
- Monitorig Program
- Mapping and Monitoring results during excavation of vault
- Support of the cavern walls
- Mapping and monitoring results during excavation of Benches
- Back Analyses
- Conclusions

Tunneling in Swelling Rock

- Introduction
- Influence of the elevation of the Anhydrite Surface on Swellin
- Pressure and Heaving
  - Anhydrite Surface abovethe tunnel Roof
  - Anhydrite Surface underneath and in the Area of the tunnel Invert
  - Anhydrite Surface un the Middle of the Tunnel Cross-Section
  - Conclusions. Urban Railway Tunnel in Stuttgart.Construction Lost 12
     - Project
     - Ground Conditions
     - Stability Analyses for the Phase of construction
     - Excavation ot the Tunnel
     - Internal lining
     - Long-tern stability of the tunnel
     - Recommendations for the construction of tunnels in Swelling Rock

Rehabilitation of Urft Dam

- Introduction
- Project
- Rehabilitation concept
- Site Investigation and testing
  - Program
  - Masonry dam
  - Foundation rock
- Rehabilitation Works
  - Overview
  - Inspeccion Galleries
  - Drainage
- Monitoring
  - Program
  - Temperatures
  - Pore Pressures and Quantities of Seepage Water
  - Displacements
- Back Analyses
- Stability Proof
- Conclusions

Stabilization of a Rock Mass Slide

- Original Design
- Revised Design
  - Further Explorations
  - Stability Analyses
  - Installation of Tendons and Drainage
  - Monitoring
- Bacl Analysis of Monitoring Results
- Installation of Additional Tendons
- Long-Term Monitoring





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