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Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures Harbours and Waterways EAU 2012


The "EAU 2012" takes into account the new generation of standards, which is shortly to be introduced into the building control system; it consists of Eurocode 7, the associated national application documents and additional national regulations (DIN 1054:2010). In certain cases, partial safety factors are determined differently based on experience in practice. This means that the safety standard of sea and port buildings remains in place;


  • ISBN: 978-3-433-03110-0
  • Páginas: 676
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2015

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Contenido Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures Harbours and Waterways EAU 2012

The "EAU 2012" takes into account the new generation of standards, which is shortly to be introduced into the building control system; it consists of Eurocode 7, the associated national application documents and additional national regulations (DIN 1054:2010). In certain cases, partial safety factors are determined differently based on experience in practice. This means that the safety standard of sea and port buildings remains in place; the recommendations nevertheless satisfy the requirements for international recognition and application regarding the planning, design, specification, tender procedure, construction and monitoring, as well as the handover of - and cost accounting for - port and waterway systems under uniform criteria.

Table of Contents

List of Recommendations in the 9th Edition XXI

Preface to 11th, revised edition (9th English edition) of the Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures – Harbours and Waterways XXVII

0 Structural calculations

0.1 General
0.2 Safety concept  
   0.2.1 General
   0.2.2 Combination factors
   0.2.3 Analysis of ultimate limit state
   0.2.4 Analysis of serviceability limit state  
   0.2.5 Geotechnical categories
   0.2.6 Probabilistic analysis
0.3 Calculations for waterfront structures

1 Subsoil

1.1 Mean characteristic values of soil parameters (R 9)
    1.1.1 General  
1.2 Layout and depths of boreholes and penetrometer tests (R 1)  
    1.2.1 General
    1.2.2 Principal boreholes
    1.2.3 Intermediate boreholes
    1.2.4 Penetrometer tests  
1.3 Geotechnical report (R 150)
1.4 Determining the shear strength cu of saturated, undrained cohesive soils (R 88)
    1.4.1 Cohesion cu of undrained soil
    1.4.2 Determining the cohesion cu of an undrained soil
    1.4.3 Determining cu in laboratory tests  
    1.4.4 Field tests  22
    1.4.5 Correlations 22
1.5 Assessing the subsoil for the installation of piles and sheet piles and for selecting the installation method (R 154)
    1.5.1 General
    1.5.2 Assessment of soil types with respect to installation methods

2 Active and passive earth pressure

2.1 General  
2.2 Considering the cohesion in cohesive soils (R 2)
2.3 Considering the apparent cohesion (capillary cohesion) in sand (R 3)  
2.4 Determining active earth pressure according to the Culmann method (R 171)  
   2.4.1 Solution for uniform soil without cohesion
   2.4.2 Solution for uniform soil with cohesion
   2.4.3 Expanded solutions
2.5 Active earth pressure in stratified soil (R 219)
2.6 Determining active earth pressure for a steep, paved embankment in a partially sloping waterfront structure (R 198)
2.7 Determining the active earth pressure shielding on a wall below a relieving platform with average ground surcharges (R 172)  
2.8 Earth pressure distribution under limited loads (R 220)
2.9 Determining active earth pressure in saturated, non- or partially consolidated, soft cohesive soils (R 130)
2.10 Effect of artesian water pressure under harbour bottom or river bed on active and passive earth pressures (R 52)
2.11 Considering active earth pressure and excess water pressure, and construction guidance for waterfront structures with soil replacement and contaminated or disturbed base of excavation (R 110)
   2.11.1 General  
   2.11.2 Approach for determining active earth pressure  
   2.11.3 Approaches for determining excess water pressure  
   2.11.4 Guidance for the design of waterfront structures  
2.12 Effect of groundwater flow on excess water pressure and active and passive earth pressures (R 114)  
   2.12.1 General
   2.12.2 Determining the excess water pressure
   2.12.3 Determining the effects on active and passive earth pressures when the flow is mainly vertical
2.13 Determining the amount of displacement required for mobilising passive earth pressure in non-cohesive soils (R 174) 53
2.14 Measures for increasing the passive earth pressure in front of waterfront structures (R 164)  
   2.14.1 General  
   2.14.2 Soil replacement
   2.14.3 Soil compaction
   2.14.4 Soil surcharge
   2.14.5 Soil stabilisation
2.15 Passive earth pressure in front of abrupt changes in ground level in soft cohesive soils with rapid load application on land side (R 190)
2.16 Waterfront structures in seismic regions (R 124)
   2.16.1 General  
   2.16.2 Effects of earthquakes on the subsoil  
   2.16.3 Determining the effects of earthquakes on active and passive earth pressures
   2.16.4 Excess water pressure
   2.16.5 Transient loads  
   2.16.6 Design situation and partial safety factors
   2.16.7 Guidance for considering seismic influences on waterfront structures

3 Hydraulic heave failure, ground failure  

3.1 Safety against hydraulic heave failure (R 115)
3.2 Piping (ground failure due to internal erosion) (R 116)

4 Water levels, water pressure, drainage

4.1 Mean groundwater level (R 58)
4.2 Excess water pressure in direction of water side (R 19)
4.3 Excess water pressure on sheet piling in front of embankments below elevated platforms in tidal areas (R 65)
   4.3.1 General  
,  4.3.2 Approximation for excess water pressure
4.4 Design of weepholes for sheet piling structures (R 51)
4.5 Design of drainage systems for waterfront structures in tidal areas (R 32)
   4.5.1 General  
   4.5.2 Design, installation and maintenance of drainage systems
   4.5.3 Drainage systems for large waterfront structures  
4.6 Relieving artesian pressure beneath harbour bottoms (R 53)
   4.6.1 General  
   4.6.2 Design of relief wells
   4.6.3 Construction of relief wells
   4.6.4 Checking the relief installation
4.7 Taking account of groundwater flow (R 113)  
   4.7.1 General  
   4.7.2 Principles of groundwater flow
   4.7.3 Definition of the boundary conditions for a flow net
   4.7.5 Use of groundwater models to determine flow nets
   4.7.6 Calculation of individual hydraulic variables  
   4.7.7 Evaluation of examples  
4.8 Temporary stabilisation of waterfront structures by groundwater lowering (R 166)
   4.8.1 General  90
   4.8.2 Case with soft, cohesive soil near the ground surface  
   4.8.3 Case as for section 4.8.2 but with high-level aquifer
   4.8.4 Consideration of intermediate states

5 Ship dimensions and loads on waterfront structures

5.1 Ship dimensions (R 39)  
   5.1.1 Sea-going ships
   5.1.2 River- and sea-going vessels  
   5.1.3 Inland waterway vessels
   5.1.4 Displacement
5.2 Berthing force of ships at quays (R 38)
5.3 Berthing velocities of ships transverse to berth (R 40)  
5.4 Design situations (R 18)
   5.4.1 Design situation DS-P  
   5.4.2 Design situation DS-T  
   5.4.3 Design situation DS-A  
   5.4.4 Extreme case
5.5 Vertical imposed loads (R 5)
   5.5.1 General
   5.5.2 Basic situation 1  
   5.5.3 Basic situation 2  
   5.5.4 Basic situation 3  
   5.5.5 Loading assumptions for quay surfaces
5.6 Determining the “design sea state” for maritime and port structures (R 136)
   5.6.1 General
   5.6.2 Description of the sea state
   5.6.3 Determining the sea state parameters
   5.6.4 Design concepts and specification of design parameters
   5.6.5 Conversion of the sea state
5.7 Wave pressure on vertical quay walls in coastal areas (R 135)  
   5.7.1 General
   5.7.2 Loads due to non-breaking waves
   5.7.3 Loads due to waves breaking on structure
   5.7.4 Loads due to broken waves  
   5.7.5 Additional loads caused by waves
5.8 Loads arising from surging and receding waves due to the inflow or outflow of water (R 185)  
   5.8.1 General
   5.8.2 Determining wave values  
   5.8.3 Load assumptions
5.9 Effects of waves due to ship movements (R 186)
   5.9.1 General
   5.9.2 Wave heights
5.10 Wave pressure on piled structures (R 159)
   5.10.1 General
   5.10.2 Method of calculation according to Morison et al
   5.10.3 Determining the wave loads on a single vertical pile
   5.10.4 Coefficients CD and CM
   5.10.5 Forces from breaking waves
   5.10.6 Wave load on a group of piles
   5.10.7 Raking piles
   5.10.8 Safety factors
   5.10.9 Vertical wave load (“wave slamming”)
5.11 Wind loads on moored ships and their influence on the dimensioning of mooring and fender equipment (R 153)
   5.11.1 General
   5.11.2 Critical wind speed  
   5.11.3 Wind loads on moored vessels
   5.11.4 Loads on mooring and fender equipment  
5.12 Layout of and loads on bollards for sea-going vessels (R 12)
   5.12.1 Layout
   5.12.2 Loads  
   5.12.3 Direction of bollard pull force  
5.13 Layout, design and loading of bollards for inland facilities (R 102)
   5.13.1 Layout and design
   5.13.2 Loads  
   5.13.3 Direction of line pull forces  
5.14 Quay loads from cranes and other transhipment equipment (R 84)
   5.14.1 Typical general cargo port cranes
   5.14.2 Container cranes  
   5.14.3 Load specifications for port cranes
   5.14.4 Notes
5.15 Impact and pressure of ice on waterfront structures, fenders and dolphins in coastal areas (R 177)  
   5.15.1 General
   5.15.2 Determining the compressive strength of the ice
   5.15.3 Ice loads on waterfront structures and othe  
   5.15.4 Ice loads on vertical piles
   5.15.5 Horizontal ice load on group of piles
   5.15.6 Ice surcharges
   5.15.7 Vertical loads with rising or falling water levels
5.16 Impact and pressure of ice on waterfront structures, piers and dolphins at inland facilities (R 205)  
   5.16.1 General
   5.16.2 Ice thickness
   5.16.3 Compressive strength of the ice
   5.16.4 Ice loads on waterfront structures and other structures of greater extent
   5.16.5 Ice loads on narrow structures (piles, dolphins, bridge and weir piers, ice deflectors)  
   5.16.6 Ice loads on groups of structures  166
   5.16.7 Vertical loads with rising or falling water levels
5.17 Loads on waterfront structures and dolphins caused by fender reaction forces (R 213)  

6 Configuration of cross-sections and equipment for waterfront structures  

6.1 Standard cross-section dimensions for waterfront structures in seaports (R 6)  
   6.1.1 Standard cross-sections
   6.1.2 Walkways (towpaths)
   6.1.3 Railings, rubbing strips and edge protection  
   6.1.4 Edge bollards
   6.1.5 Arrangement of tops of quay walls at container terminals  
6.2 Top edges of waterfront structures in seaports (R 122)  
   6.2.1 General
   6.2.2 Level of port operations area with regard to water levels
   6.2.3 Effects of (changing) groundwater levels on the terrain and the level of the port operations area
   6.2.4 Level of port operations area depending on cargo handling
6.3 Standard cross-sections for waterfront structures in inland ports (R 74)  
   6.3.1 Port operations level
   6.3.2 Waterfront
   6.3.3 Clearance profile
   6.3.4 Position of outboard crane rail  
   6.3.5 Mooring equipment  
6.4 Sheet piling waterfronts on inland waterways (R 106)  
   6.4.1 General 175
   6.4.2 Stability analysis  
   6.4.3 Loading assumptions
   6.4.4 Embedment depth
6.5 Upgrading partially sloped waterfronts in inland ports with large water level fluctuations (R 119)
   6.5.1 Reasons for partially sloped upgrades
   6.5.2 Design principles  
6.6 Design of waterfront areas in inland ports according to operational aspects (R 158) 180
   6.6.1 Requirements
   6.6.2 Design principles  
   6.6.3 Waterfront cross-sections  
6.7 Nominal depth and design depth of harbour bottom (R 36)
   6.7.1 Nominal depth in seaports
   6.7.2 Nominal depth of harbour bottom for inland ports
   6.7.3 Design depth in front of quay wall
6.8 Strengthening waterfront structures for deepening harbour bottoms in seaports (R 200)  
   6.8.1 General
   6.8.2 Design of strengthening measures
6.9 Embankments below waterfront wall superstructures behind closed sheet pile walls (R 68)
   6.9.1 Embankment loads  
   6.9.2 Risk of silting-up behind sheet pile wall
6.10 Redesign of waterfront structures in inland ports (R 201)
   6.10.1 General 190
   6.10.2 Redesign options  
   6.10.3 Construction examples
6.11 Provision of quick-release hooks at berths for large vessels (R 70)
6.12 Layout, design and loads of access ladders (R 14)
   6.12.1 Layout
   6.12.2 Design
6.13 Layout and design of stairs in seaports (R 24)  
   6.13.1 Layout of stairs
   6.13.2 Practical stair dimensions
   6.13.3 Landings
   6.13.4 Railings
   6.13.5 Mooring equipment
   6.13.6 Stairs in sheet pile structures
6.14 Equipment for waterfront structures in seaports with supply and disposal systems (R 173)  
   6.14.1 General
   6.14.2 Water supply systems  
   6.14.3 Electricity supply systems
   6.14.4 Other systems  
   6.14.5 Disposal systems  
6.15 Fenders for large vessels (R 60)
   6.15.1 General
   6.15.2 The fendering principle
   6.15.3 Design principles for fenders
   6.15.4 Required energy absorption capacity
   6.15.5 Types of fender system
   6.15.6 Construction guidance
   6.15.7 Chains
   6.15.8 Guiding devices and edge protection
6.16 Fenders in inland ports (R 47)  
6.17 Foundations to craneways on waterfront structures (R 120)
   6.17.1 General
   6.17.2 Design of foundations, tolerances
6.18 Fixing crane rails to concrete (R 85)
   6.18.1 Supporting the crane rail on a continuous steel plate on a continuous concrete base
   6.18.2 Bridge-type arrangement with rail supported centrally on bearing plates
   6.18.3 Bridge-type arrangement with rail supported on chairs  
   6.18.4 Traversable craneways
   6.18.5 Note on rail wear  
   6.18.6 Local bearing pressure  
6.19 Connection of expansion joint seal in reinforced concrete bottom to loadbearing steel sheet pile wall (R 191)  
6.20 Connecting steel sheet piling to a concrete structure (R 196)
6.21 Floating berths in seaports (R 206)
   6.21.1 General
   6.21.2 Design principles
   6.21.3 Loading assumptions and design

7 Earthworks and dredging  

7.1 Dredging in front of quay walls in seaports (R 80)
7.2 Dredging and hydraulic fill tolerances (R 139)
   7.2.1 General
   7.2.2 Dredging tolerances  
7.3 Hydraulic filling of port areas for planned waterfront structures (R 81)  
   7.3.1 General
   7.3.2 Hydraulic filling of port above the water table  
   7.3.3 Hydraulic filling of port areas below the water table  
7.4 Backfilling of waterfront structures (R 73)
   7.4.1 General
   7.4.2 Backfilling in the dry
   7.4.3 Backfilling underwater
   7.4.4 Additional remarks  
7.5 In situ density of hydraulically filled non-cohesive soils (R 175)
   7.5.1 General
   7.5.2 Empirical values for in situ density
   7.5.3 In situ density required for port areas
   7.5.4 Checking the in situ density  
7.6 In situ density of dumped non-cohesive soils (R 178)
   7.6.1 General
   7.6.2 Influences on the achievable in situ density  
7.7 Dredging underwater slopes (R 138)
   7.7.1 General 254
   7.7.2 Dredging underwater slopes in loose sand
   7.7.3 Dredging plant
   7.7.4 Execution of dredging work
7.8 Subsidence of non-cohesive soils (R 168)
7.9 Soil replacement along a line of piles for a waterfront structure (R 109)
   7.9.1 General
   7.9.2 Dredging  
   7.9.3 Quality and procurement of the fill sand
   7.9.4 Cleaning the base of the excavation before filling with sand
   7.9.5 Placing the sand fill  
   7.9.6 Checking the sand fill  
7.10 Dynamic compaction of the soil (R 188)  264
7.11 Vertical drains to accelerate the consolidation of soft cohesive soils (R 93)
   7.11.1 General
   7.11.2 Applications
   7.11.3 Design
   7.11.4 Design of plastic drains
   7.11.5 Installation
7.12 Consolidation of soft cohesive soils by preloading (R 179)
   7.12.1 General
   7.12.2 Applications
   7.12.3 Bearing capacity of in situ soil
   7.12.4 Fill material  
   7.12.5 Determining the depth of preload fill
   7.12.6 Minimum extent of preload fill
   7.12.7 Soil improvement through vacuum consolidation with vertical drains
   7.12.8 Execution of soil improvement through vacuum consolidation with vertical drains  
   7.12.9 Checking the consolidation  
   7.12.10 Secondary settlement
7.13 Improving the bearing capacity of soft cohesive soils with vertical elements (R 210)  275
   7.13.1 General
   7.13.2 Methods  
   7.13.3 Construction of pile-type loadbearing elements
   7.13.4 Design of geotextile-encased columns  
   7.13.5 Construction of geotextile-encased columns  

8 Sheet piling structures

8.1 Materials and construction
   8.1.1 Design and installation of timber sheet pile walls (R 22)
   8.1.2 Design and installation of reinforced concrete sheet pile walls (R 21)
   8.1.3 Design and installation of steel sheet pile walls (R 34)  
   8.1.4 Combined steel sheet piling (R 7)
   8.1.5 Shear-resistant interlock connections for steel sheet piling (R 103)
   8.1.6 Quality requirements for steels and dimensional tolerances for steel sheet piles (R 67)
   8.1.7 Acceptance conditions for steel sheet piles and steel piles on site (R 98)
   8.1.8 Corrosion of steel sheet piling, and countermeasures (R 35)  
   8.1.9 Danger of sand abrasion on sheet piling (R 23)
   8.1.10 Shock blasting to assist the driving of steel sheet piles (R 183)  
   8.1.11 Driving steel sheet piles (R 118)  
   8.1.12 Driving combined steel sheet piling (R 104)
   8.1.13 Monitoring during the installation of sheet piles, tolerances (R 105)  
   8.1.14 Noise control – low-noise driving (R 149)
   8.1.15 Driving of steel sheet piles and steel piles at low temperatures (R 90)
   8.1.16 Repairing interlock declutching on driven steel sheet piling (R 167)  
   8.1.17 Reinforced steel sheet piling (R 176)
   8.1.18 Design of piling frames (R 140)
   8.1.19 Design of welded joints in steel piles and steel sheet piles (R 99)  
   8.1.20 Cutting off the tops of driven steel sections for loadbearing welded connections (R 91)
   8.1.21 Watertightness of steel sheet piling (R 117)  
   8.1.22 Waterfront structures in regions with mining subsidence (R 121)  
   8.1.23 Vibratory driving of U- and Z-section steel sheet piles (R 202)
   8.1.24 Water-jetting to assist the driving of steel sheet piles (R 203)
   8.1.25 Pressing of U- and Z-section steel sheet piles (R 212)
8.2 Design of sheet piling
   8.2.1 General
   8.2.2 Free-standing sheet piling structures (R 161)
   8.2.3 Design of sheet piling structures with fixity in the ground and a single anchor (R 77)  
   8.2.4 Design of sheet pile walls with double anchors (R 134)
   8.2.5 Applying the angle of earth pressure and the analysis in the vertical direction (R 4)
   8.2.6 Taking account of unfavourable groundwater flows in the passive earth pressure zone (R 199)  
   8.2.7 Verifying the loadbearing capacity of the elements of sheet piling structures (R 20)  
   8.2.8 Selection of embedment depth for sheet piling (R 55)
   8.2.9 Determining the embedment depth for sheet pile walls with full or partial fixity in the soil (R 56)
   8.2.10 Steel sheet piling with staggered embedment depths (R 41)
   8.2.11 Horizontal actions on steel sheet pile walls in the longitudinal direction of the quay (R 132)
   8.2.12 Design of anchor walls fixed in the ground (R 152)  
   8.2.13 Staggered arrangement of anchor walls (R 42)
   8.2.14 Steel sheet piling founded on bedrock (R 57)
   8.2.15 Waterfront sheet piling in unconsolidated, soft cohesive soils, especially in connection with non-sway structures (R 43)  
   8.2.16 Design of single-anchor sheet piling structures in earthquake zones (R 125)  
8.3 Calculation and design of cofferdams
   8.3.1 Cellular cofferdams as excavation enclosures and waterfront structures (R 100)
   8.3.2 Double-wall cofferdams as excavation enclosures and waterfront structures (R 101)
   8.3.3 Narrow moles in sheet piling (R 162)
8.4 Walings, capping beams and anchor connections  
   8.4.1 Design of steel walings for sheet piling (R 29)  
   8.4.2 Verification of steel walings (R 30)  
   8.4.3 Sheet piling walings of reinforced concrete with driven steel anchor piles (R 59)
   8.4.4 Steel capping beams for sheet piling waterfront structures (R 95)
   8.4.5 Reinforced concrete capping beams for waterfront structures with steel sheet piling (R 129)  
   8.4.6 Steel nosings to protect reinforced concrete walls and capping beams on waterfront structures (R 94)
   8.4.7 Auxiliary anchors at the top of steel sheet piling structures (R 133)  
   8.4.8 Screw threads for sheet piling anchors (R 184)
   8.4.9 Sheet piling anchors in unconsolidated, soft cohesive soils (R 50)
   8.4.10 Design of protruding quay wall corners with round steel tie rods (R 31)
   8.4.11 Design and calculation of protruding quay wall corners with raking anchor piles (R 146)
   8.4.12 High prestressing of high-strength steel anchors for waterfront structures (R 151)
   8.4.13 Hinged connections between driven steel anchor piles and steel sheet piling structures (R 145)  
8.5 Verification of stability for anchoring at the lower failure plane (R 10)  
   8.5.1 Stability at the lower failure plane for anchorages with anchor walls
   8.5.2 Stability at the lower failure plane in unconsolidated, saturated cohesive soils  
   8.5.3 Stability at the lower failure plane with varying soil strata
   8.5.4 Verification of stability at the lower failure for a quay wall fixed in the soil
   8.5.5 Stability at the lower failure plane for an anchor wall fixed in the soil
   8.5.6 Stability at the lower failure plane for anchors with anchor plates 
   8.5.7 Verification of safety against failure of anchoring soil
   8.5.8 Stability at the lower failure plane for quay walls anchored with anchor piles or grouted anchors at one level
   8.5.9 Stability at the lower failure plane for quay walls with anchors at more than one level  
   8.5.10 Safety against slope failure

9 Tension piles and anchors (R 217)

9.1 General
9.2 Displacement piles
   9.2.1 Installation
   9.2.2 Types  
   9.2.3 Loadbearing capacity of displacement piles
9.3 Micropiles
   9.3.1 Installation
   9.3.2 Types
   9.3.3 Loadbearing capacity of micropiles  
9.4 Special piles
   9.4.1 General
   9.4.2 Prefabricated raking piles
9.5 Anchors
   9.5.1 Construction
   9.5.2 Types  
   9.5.3 Loadbearing capacity of anchors  

10 Quay walls and superstructures in concrete  

10.1 Design principles for quay walls and superstructures in concrete (R 17)
   10.1.1 General principles
   10.1.2 Edge protection
   10.1.3 Facing  
10.2 Design and construction of reinforced concrete components in waterfront structures (R 72)
   10.2.1 Preliminary remarks
   10.2.2 Concrete  
   10.2.3 Construction joints
   10.2.4 Structures with large longitudinal dimensions
   10.2.5 Crack width limitation  
10.3 Formwork in areas affected by tides and waves (R 169)
10.4 Box caissons as waterfront structures in seaports (R 79)
   10.4.1 General
   10.4.2 Design
   10.4.3 Safety against sliding
   10.4.4 Construction details  
   10.4.5 Construction work
10.5 Compressed-air caissons as waterfront structures (R 87)
   10.5.1 General
   10.5.2 Verification  
   10.5.3 Safety against sliding
   10.5.4 Construction details
   10.5.5 Work on site
   10.5.6 Frictional resistance during sinking
10.6 Design and construction of block-type quay walls (R 123)
   10.6.1 Basic principles
   10.6.2 Forces acting on a block wall
   10.6.3 Design
10.7 Design of quay walls using open caissons (R 147)
   10.7.1 General
   10.7.2 Verification  
   10.7.3 Construction details  
   10.7.4 Work on site
   10.7.5 Frictional resistance during sinking
   10.7.6 Preparation of the subsoil
10.8 Design and construction of solid waterfront structures (e.g. blocks, box caissons, compressed-air caissons) in earthquake zones (R 126)  
   10.8.1 General
   10.8.2 Active and passive earth pressures, excess water pressure, variable loads
   10.8.3 Safety
   10.8.4 Base of the wall
10.9 Use and design of bored cast-in-place piles (R 86)
   10.9.1 General
   10.9.2 Design
   10.9.3 Construction of bored cast-in-place pile walls
   10.9.4 Construction guidance  
10.10 Use and design of diaphragm walls (R 144)  
   10.10.1 General
   10.10.2 Verifying the stability of the open trench  
   10.10.3 Composition of the supporting slurry
   10.10.4 Diaphragm wall construction
   10.10.5 Concrete and reinforcement  
   10.10.6 Guidance for the design of diaphragm walls  
10.11 Survey prior to repairing concrete components in hydraulic engineering structures (R 194)  
   10.11.1 General 515
   10.11.2 Tests performed on the structure
   10.11.3 Tests performed in the laboratory  
   10.11.4 Theoretical investigations
10.12 Repairing concrete components in hydraulic engineering structures (R 195)
   10.12.1 General
   10.12.2 Assessing the actual condition  
   10.12.3 Planning the repair works
   10.12.4 Execution of the repair works

11 Pile bents and trestles

11.1 General
11.2 Calculating subsequently strengthened pile bents/trestles (R 45)
   11.2.1 General
   11.2.2 Loads  
   11.2.3 Calculation for cohesive substrata
   11.2.4 Load from excess water pressure
11.3 Design of plane pile bents (R 78)
11.4 Design of spatial pile trestles (R 157)
   11.4.1 Special structures designed as spatial pile trestles  
   11.4.2 Free-standing pile trestles
   11.4.3 Structural system and calculations
   11.4.4 Construction guidance  
11.5 Design of piled structures in earthquake zones (R 127)
   11.5.1 General
   11.5.2 Active and passive earth pressures, excess water pressure, variable loads  
   11.5.3 Resisting the horizontal inertial forces of the superstructure  

12 Protection and stabilisation structures  

12.1 Embankment stabilisation on inland waterways (R 211)
   12.1.1 General
   12.1.2 Loads on inland waterways
   12.1.3 Construction of bank protection
   12.1.4 Toe protection  
   12.1.5 Junctions  
   12.1.6 Design of revetments
12.2 Slopes in seaports and tidal inland ports (R 107)  
   12.2.1 General
   12.2.2 Examples of impermeable revetments
12.3 Use of geotextile filters in bank and bottom protection (R 189)
   12.3.1 General
   12.3.2 Design principles  
   12.3.3 Requirements
   12.3.4 Additional measures
   12.3.5 General installation guidelines  
12.4 Scour and protection against scour in front of waterfront structures (R 83)
   12.4.1 General
   12.4.2 Choosing a greater design depth (allowance for scouring)
   12.4.3 Covering the bottom (scour protection)
   12.4.4 Current velocity at revetment due to propeller wash  
   12.4.5 Designing bottom protection
12.5 Scour protection at piers and dolphins
12.6 Installation of mineral impervious linings underwater and their connection to waterfront structures (R 204)  
   12.6.1 Concept
   12.6.2 Installation in dry conditions
   12.6.3 Installation in wet conditions
   12.6.4 Connections
12.7 Flood defence walls in seaports (R 165)
   12.7.1 General
   12.7.2 Critical water levels
   12.7.3 Excess water pressure and unit weight of soil
   12.7.4 Minimum embedment depths for flood defence walls
   12.7.5 Special loads on flood defence walls
   12.7.6 Guidance on designing flood defence walls in slopes
   12.7.7 Constructional measures  
   12.7.8 Buried services in the region of flood defence walls  
12.8 Dumped moles and breakwaters (R 137)  
   12.8.1 General
   12.8.2 Stability analyses, settlement and subsidence, guidance on construction  
   12.8.3 Specifying the geometry of the structure
   12.8.4 Designing the armour layer  
   12.8.5 Construction of breakwaters
   12.8.6 Construction and use of plant
   12.8.7 Settlement and subsidence
   12.8.8 Invoicing for installed quantities

13 Dolphins (R 218)

13.1 General principles
   13.1.1 Dolphins – purposes and types
   13.1.2 Stiffness of the system  
   13.1.3 Loads on dolphins and design principles
   13.1.4 Actions
   13.1.5 Safety concept  
13.2 Design of dolphins
   13.2.1 Soil–structure interaction and the resulting design variables  
   13.2.2 Required energy absorption capacity of breasting dolphins
   13.2.3 Other calculations
13.3 Construction and arrangement of dolphins (R 128)601
   13.3.1 Type of dolphin structure  
   13.3.2 Layout of dolphins
   13.3.3 Equipment for dolphins
   13.3.4 Advice for selecting materials  

14 Inspection and monitoring of waterfront structures (R 193)

14.1 General
14.2 Documentation
14.3 Carrying out structural inspections
   14.3.1 Structural check/Principle check
   14.3.2 Structural monitoring/Intermediate inspection
   14.3.3 Structural survey/Routine inspection
14.4 Inspection intervals
14.5 Maintenance management systems

Annex I Bibliography

I.1 Annual technical reports
I.2 Books and papers
I.3 Technical standards

Annex II Notation  

II.1a Latin lower-case letters
II.1b Latin upper-case letters  
II.1c Greek letters  
II.2 Subscripts and indexes  
II.3 Abbreviations
II.4 Designations for water levels and wave heights

Annex III List of keywords

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