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> > Flow of fluids. Through valves fittings and pipe. Technical Paper No. 410M. Metric Version

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Flow of fluids. Through valves fittings and pipe. Technical Paper No. 410M. Metric Version

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Descripción

Crane Technical Paper No. 410 (TP-410) is the quintessential guide to understanding the flow of fluid through valves, pipes and fittings, enabling you to select the correct equipment for your piping system. Originally developed in 1942, the latest edition of Crane TP-410 has been fully updated to reflect the latest knowledge and research in the fluid handling industry. The TP-410 has served as an indispensable technical resource for over 60 years to specifying engineers, designers and engineering students.


Características

  • ISBN: 1400527120
  • Páginas: 140
  • Tamaño: 22X28
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Ingles
  • Año: 2015

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 15 a 30 Días

Contenido Flow of fluids. Through valves fittings and pipe. Technical Paper No. 410M. Metric Version

Crane Technical Paper No. 410 (TP-410) is the quintessential guide to understanding the flow of fluid through valves, pipes and fittings, enabling you to select the correct equipment for your piping system.

Originally developed in 1942, the latest edition of Crane TP-410 has been fully updated to reflect the latest knowledge and research in the fluid handling industry. The TP-410 has served as an indispensable technical resource for over 60 years to specifying engineers, designers and engineering students.

New in the latest Edition:
For the latest edition, additional valves and their resistance coefficients were added based on tests performed within the Crane Engineering Laboratories. Industry research was gathered on the latest calculation methods for hydraulic resistance and in resistance values for wyes and tees. Chapters on pumps, control valves, and flow meters were included and over thirty-five new sources have been added to the book.

CONTENT:

CHAPTER 1 Theory of flow in Pipe

Introduction
Physical Properties if Fluids
 - Viscosity
 - Density
 - Specific volumen
 - Specific gravity
 - Vapour Pressure
Nature of flow in Pipe-Laminar and Turbulent Flow
 - Mean velocity of flow
 - Reynolds number
 - Noncircular conduit
General Energy Equation- Bernoulli´s Theorem
Measurement of Pressure
Head Loss and Pressure Drop Through Pipe
 - Friction factor
 - Colebrook equation
 - Explicit approximations of colebrook
 - Hazen-williams formula for flow of water
 - Effect of age and use on pipe friction
Principles of compressible flow in pipe
 - Definition of a perfect gas
 - Speed of sound and mach number
 - Approaches to compressible flow problems
 - Application of the darcy equation to compressible fluids
 - Complete isothermal equation
 - Simplified isothermal.gas pipeline equation
 - Other commonly used equations for compressible flow in long pipelines
 - Comparison of equations for compressible flow in pipelines
 - Modifications to the iothermal flow equation
 - Limiting flow of gases and vapours
 - Simple compressible flows
 - Software solutions to compressible flow problems
Steam-General Discussion

CHAPTER 2 Flow of fluids Through Valves and fittings

Introduction
Types of valves and fitting used in pipe systems
Pressure drop attributed to valves and fittings
Crane flow tests
 - Drescription of apparatus used
 - Water flow test
 - Steam flow test
Relationship of pressure drop to velocity of flow
Resistance Coefficient K,equivalent length L/D and flow coefficient K
 - Hydraulic resistance
 - Causes of head loss in valves and fitting
 - Equivalent length
 - Resistance coefficient for pipelines,valves and fitting in series and parallel
 - Resistance coefficente for geometrically dissimilar valves and fittings
 - Geometrically similar fitting
 - Adjusting k for piping and components
 - Flow coefficient K
 - Use of flow coeffient k
 - Flow coefficients for pipelines,valves,fitting in series and parallel
 - Laminar Flow conditions
 - Adjusting the resistance coefficient for reynolds number
Contraction and enlargement
Valves with reduced seats
Resistance of bends
 - Secondary of bends
 - Resistance of bends to flow
 - Resistance of miter bends
Hydraulic resistance of tees and wyes
 - Converging flow
 - Diverging flow
 - Graphical representation of K run and K branch
Dischange of Fluids through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe
 - Liquid flow
 - Compressible flow
Types of Valves

CHAPTER 3 Regulating Flow with Control Valves
Introduction
 - Componets
 - Inherent characteristic curve
 - Installed characteristic curve
 - Pressure, velocity and energy profiles
 - Cavitation, choked flow, and flashing
Control Valve Sizing and Selection
 - Sizing for incompressible flow
 - Sizing for compressible flow
 - Conversion of Kv to Cv

CHAPTER 4 Measuring Flow with Differential Pressure Meters
Introduction
Differential Pressure Flow Meters
 - Orifice plate
 - Limits of use
 - Flow nozzle
 - Limits of use
 - Venturi meter
 - Limits of use
Liquid Flow Through Orifices, Nozzles, and Venturi
 - Flow of gases and vapours
 - Expansibility factors (Y)
 - Orifice plates
 - Flow nozzles and venturi meters
 - Maximum flow of compressible fluids in a nozzle
 - Flow through short tubes

CHAPTER 5 Pumping Fluid Through Piping Systems
Introduccion
Centrifugal Pump Operation
Centrifugal Pump Sizing and Selection
 - Pump curve
 - NPSHa
 - NPSHa optimisation
 - Viscosity corrections
 - Pump affinity rules
 - Pump power calculations
 - Pump selection
Positive Displacement Pumps
 - Types of pumps

CHAPTER 6 Formulas For Flow
Introduction
Summary of Formulas
Basic conversions
Bernoulli´s theorum
Mean velocity of flow in pipe
Head loss and pressure drop for incompressible flow in straight pipe
 - Reynolds number of flow in pipe
 - Laminar friction factor
 - Turbelent friction factor
 - Colebrook implicit equation
 - Serghide explicit equation
 - Swamee-Jain
 - Head loss due to friction in straight pipes (Darcy)
 - Hazen-Williams formula for flow of water
 - Limitations of the Darcy formula
Isothermal compressible flow equations
 - Simplified isothermal equation for long pipelines
 - Weymouth equation (fully turbulent flow)
 - Panhandle A equation (partially turbulent flow)
 - Panhandle B equation (fully turbulent flow)
 - AGA equation (partially turbulent flow)
 - AGA equation (fully turbulent flow)
 - Speed of sound and Mach number
Head loss and pressure drop through valves and fittings
 - Pressure drop and flow of liquids of low viscosity using flow coefficient
 - Resistance and flow coefficients K and Kv in series and parallel
 - Changes in resistance coefficient K for various valves and fittings
 - Discharge of fluid through valves, fittings and pipe; Darcy formula
Flow through orifices, nozzles and venturi
Control valve sizing equations
Pump perfomance equations
 - Pump affinity rules
 - Pump power calculations
specific gravity of liquids
Ideal gas equation
Equivalent hydraulic diameter relationship

CHAPER 7 Examples of Flow Problems
Introduction
Determitacion of Valve Resistance in L,L/D, K, and Coefficient Kv
Check Valves, Reduced Port Valves
Laminar Flow in Valves, Fittings and Pipe
Pressure Drop and Velocity in Piping Systems
Pipeline Flow Problems
Discharge of Fluids from Piping Systems
Flow Through Orifice Meters
Application of Hydraulic Radius To Flow Problems
Control Valve Calculations
Flow Meter Calculations
Pump Examples
Tees and Wyes Calculations

APPENDIX A
Physical Properties of Fluids and Flow Characteristics of Valves, Fittings, and Pipe
Introduction
Viscosity of Steam and Water
Viscosity of Water and Liquid Petroleum Products
Viscosity of Various Liquids
Viscosity of Gases and Vapours
Viscosity of Refrigerant Vapours
Physical Properties of Water
Specific Gravity - Temperature Relationship for Petroleum Oils
Weight Density and Specific Gravity of Various Liquids
Physical Properties of Gases
Volumetric Composition and Specific Gravity of Gaseous Fuels
Steam - Values of Isentropic Exponent, y
Reasonable Velocities For the Flow of Water Through Pipe
Reasonable Velocities for Flow of Steam Through Pipe
Weight Density and Specific Volume of Gases and Vapours
Properties of Saturated Steam and Compressed Water
Flow Coefficient C For Square Edge Orifices and Nozzles
NEt Expansion Factor, Y for Compressible Flow
Relative Roughness of Pipe Materials and Friction Factor for Complete Turbulence
Friction Factors for Any Type of Commercial Pipe
Friction Factors for Clean Commercial Steel Pipe
Representative Resistance Coefficients K for Valves and Fittings K Factor Table

APPENDIX B
Engineering Data
Introduction
Equivalent Volume and Mass - Flow Rates of Compressible Fluid
Equivalents of Absolute (Dynamic) Viscosity
Equivalents of Kinematic Viscosity
Kinematic and Saybolt Universal
Kinematic and Saybolt Furol
Kinematic, Saybolt Universal, Sayblot Furol, and Absolute Viscosity
Equivalents of Degrees API, Degrees Baumé, Specific Gravity, and Density
Power Required for Pumping
Conversion Tables
 - Length
 - Area
 - Volume
 - Velocity
 - Mass
 - Mass flow rate
 - Volumetric flow heat
 - Energy, work heat
 - Power
 - Density
 - Temperature Equivalents
Flow of Water Through Schedule 40 Steel Pipe
Flow of Air Through Schedule 40 Steel Pipe
Pipe Data - Carbon and Alloy Steel; Stainless Steel
International System of Units (SI)

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