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Engineering Karstology of Dams and Reservoirs



Karst terrains have been modified and adapted through a range of human activities as the need for flood control, irrigation, food production, hydropower production and other resources has increased. Successful reclamation projects require construction of dams and reservoirs.


  • ISBN: 9781498748070
  • Páginas: 356
  • Tamaño: 17X24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2018

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido Engineering Karstology of Dams and Reservoirs


• Shows how water resources systems in karst terrain can be planned to minimize negative and to maximize positive environmental impacts
• Shows how dams and reservoirs in karst is risky task – reservoirs may fail to fill despite the best engineering practice was applied
• Discusses modified and regulated natural surface and underground water flows, due to dam construction in karstic areas
• Covers both rehabilitated and redesigned dams, reservoirs and grout curtains in karst
• Shows how deep caverns and underground flows can be investigated and properly rehabilitated by application of specific and sophisticated investigation and sealing methods, only


Karst terrains have been modified and adapted through a range of human activities as the need for flood control, irrigation, food production, hydropower production and other resources has increased. Successful reclamation projects require construction of dams and reservoirs. Karst terrains present the most complex working conditions for dam foundation and realization of safe reservoir space. Practical engineering solutions are extremely complex and the need for successful solution requires serious investigations and the cooperation of a wide spectrum of scientists and engineers. A wealth of data on dam projects in karst has been collected and presented in this book. Since reservoirs in karst may fail to fill despite extensive investigations and remediation treatment the book includes a description of failures as well.

Table of Contents

General Introduction

  -  Karst and Engineering
  -  Distribution of Karst
  -  Types of Karst
  -  Introduction to Engineering Karstology
  -  Dams and Reservoirs in Karst
     - Historical review
     - Failures,Risk and Hazard

Characterization of Karst Aquifers

  - Karstification
  - Specific Structural Features of Karst Porosity
  - Role of Erosion and Evorsion in Karst Features Development
  - Depth of Karstification
  - Hydrogeological Properties of Karst Aquifer
     - General Hydrogeological Properties
     - The base of Karstification
     - The Evolution of Karst Aquifers- Epigene and Hypogene Karstification
     - The hydrogeological Hierarchy of Groundwater Flows in Karst
     - Hydrogeological Zoning of Karst Aquifers
     - Epikarst
     - Dynamics of Air Flow in the Aeration Zone
     - Hydraulic Properties of Karst Water Flow
     - Complexity of Karst Aquifers
     - The Origin of deep karst Aquifers as consequences of coupled cold / Thermal Flows

Karst Features Relevant to Dam Hydrogeology

     - Springs
     - Ponors ( Swallow Holes )
     - Estavelles

The Regional Approach to Select Proper Sites for Dams and Reservoirs

  - The Karst Types – Engineering Approach
  - Geomorphological Properties
  - Storage Properties of Valleys and Karst Depressions – Poljes
  - Importance of Lithological and Geological Structures
  - The Hydrogeological Role of the Base of Karstification

Specific Methods of Investigations in Karst

  - Karst Nature – Needs for Specific Investigations
  - Properties of Discontinuities
  - Piezometers and the Groundwater Regime
  - Geophysical Methods
  - Tracer Techniques
     - Dye Tracer
     - Radioactive Isotopes
     - Common Salt
     - Post-activated Isotopes
     - Optical Brighteners
     - Spores
     - Smoke and Air
  - Speleology
  - Hydrogeological Investigations and Monitoring
     - Hydrological Properties
     - Simultaneous hydrological measurements

Methods to Determine the Permeability of Dam Foundation and Reservoirs

  - Geological Settings of Dam Sites and Reservoirs
  - Seepage Conditions in Karstified Rocks
  - Investigation Boreholes
  - Permeability Characteristics Derived From Pressure Tests and Groundwater Regime Analysis
  - Karstification and Hydraulic Conductivity
  - Adits (Investigation Galleries, Drifts)

Waterproofing in Karst
  - General Aspects
  - Karst Features and Processes – Sources of Leakage
  - Underground Waterproofing  
    - Waterproofing structures
    - Determining the grout curtain route
    - Grouting galleries
    - Grout curtains-General Design Criteria
    - Exceptions in the case of hypogene karstification
    - The final layout of the grout curtain
    - Grout Mix ( Suspension )
    - Grout Mix Penetration
    - Groutability
    - Grouting pressures
    - Grout mix consumption
    - One,two row or multi-row curtains
    - Grout Curtain Depth
    - The flushing method
    - Grout curtain surface areas
    - Treatment of caverns and conduits
    - Design criteria for the treatment of caverns and conduits
    - Treatment procedures for caverns
    - Plugging underground karst water flow
    - Groutability of clay-filled cavers
    - Plugging of large karst channels and caversn-overview
    - Cut-off diaphragm structures ( Piles,Overlapping Piles,Trenches,Mine Structures )
    - Drainage of dam foundations and grout curtains in Karst
 Surface Waterproofing  
    - Damming ponors and estavelles
    - Dynamic compaction and clay blanket
    - Grouting Carpet ( Consolidation )
    - Shotcrete
    - Reinforced concrete Slabs
    - Geomembranes
    - Dental Treatments
    - The Destructive role of Air-Hammer and Water-hammer effects

Dams and Reservoirs Construction on Evaporites

Evaporites – Risky Environment for Dam Construction
Evaporites – General Characteristics
List of Dam and Reservoir in Evaporites with Construction Problems
Selected Case Studies

Underground Dams and Reservoirs
Underground Dams – New Challenges
General Geological Properties as Prerequisite for Underground Dam Installation
Selected Case Studies

Modeling in Karst

Modelling and its Limitation in Engineering Karstology
Physical Models of Karst Aquifer
Modeling Disturbances of Natural Flow Regimes due to Construction of Reservoirs  
Modeling the Consequences of Dam Construction on Processes of Karstification  

Leakage From Reservoirs – A Common Problem in Karst

The Leakage – Key Problem in Engineering Karstology
    - Dams with High Leakage
Case Studies of Leakage as Consequence of Progressive Erosion and Dissolution
Collapses (Sinkholes) as Consequences of Reservoir Operation
Acceptable Leakage

Engineering and The Environmental Impact of Dams and Reservoirs in Karst
Impact to Regional Regime of Surface and Groundwater
Impact on Subterranean and Terrestrial Fauna and Archeological Material
Submergence of Large Karst Springs by Reservoirs
Reservoir Bank Storage
Karst-triggered Seismicity

Trans-boundary Problems and Groundwater Protection

A Simplified Model of Trans-boundary Aquifers in Karst
Trans-boundary Problems Common in Karst
The Questions that Arise
Groundwater Protection Zoning in Karst – A Conceptual Model

A Catalog of Selected Dams and Reservoirs in Karst
A List of Dams Known to be Constructed in Karstified Rocks
List of Dams with Problems due to Large Caverns and Hypogene Karstification
Dams with Successful Waterproofing During Construction
Case Studies with Successful Corrective Works
Dams with Unsuccessful or Partially Successful Remedial Works
Redesigned Anti-Leakage Structures
Dams and Reservoirs with Acceptable Seepage Losses
Dams that were Displaced, Abandoned or have Limited use
Reservoir Failures After Many Years of Operation
Dams Under Design or Construction
Abandoned Sites, Redesigned or Temporary Frozen Projects
Tailings Dams and Ponds in Karst
Dams for Submerged Spring Tapping
    - Kiveri-Anavalos Marine Dam
    - Bolje Sestre Spring

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