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Bridge Design: Concepts and Analysis

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Descripción

Bridge Design - Concepts and Analysis provides a unique approach, combining the fundamentals of concept design and structural analysis of bridges in a single volume


Características

  • ISBN: 978-0-470-84363-5|
  • Páginas: 552
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2019

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido Bridge Design: Concepts and Analysis

Bridge Design - Concepts and Analysis provides a unique approach, combining the fundamentals of concept design and structural analysis of bridges in a single volume. The book discusses design solutions from the authors’ practical experience and provides insights into conceptual design with concrete, steel or composite bridge solutions as alternatives.

Key features:

• Principal design concepts and analysis are dealt with in a unified approach.
• Execution methods and evolution of the static scheme during construction are dealt with for steel, concrete and composite bridges.
• Aesthetics and environmental integration of bridges are considered as an issue for concept design.
• Bridge analysis, including modelling and detail design aspects, is discussed for different bridge typologies and structural materials.
• Specific design verification aspects are discussed on the basis of present design rules in Eurocodes.

The book is an invaluable guide for postgraduate students studying bridge design, bridge designers and structural engineers.

Table of contents

CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION


1.1 Generalities
1.2 Definitions and Terminology
1.3 Bridge Classification
1.4 Bridge Typology
1.5 Some Historical References
   1.5.1 Masonry Bridges
   1.5.2 Timber Bridges
   1.5.3 Metal Bridges
   1.5.4 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Bridges
   1.5.5 Cable Supported Bridges
References

CHAPTER 2 – BRIDGE DESIGN: SITE DATA AND BASIC CONDITIONS

2.1 Design Phases and Methodology
2.2 Basic Site Data
   2.2.1 Generalities
   2.2.2 Topographic Data
   2.2.3 Geological and Geotechnical Data
   2.2.4 Hydraulic Data
   2.2.5 Other Data
2.3 Bridge Location. Alignment, Bridge Length and Hydraulic Conditions
   2.3.1 The Horizontal and Vertical Alignments
   2.3.2 The Transverse Alignment
2.4 Elements Integrated in Bridge Decks
   2.4.1 Road Bridges
      2.4.1.1 Surfacing and Deck Waterproofing
      2.4.1.2 Walkways, Parapets and Handrails
      2.4.1.3 Fascia Beams
      2.4.1.4 Drainage System
      2.4.1.5 Lighting System
      2.4.1.6 Expansion Joints
    2.4.2 Railway Decks
      2.4.2.1 Track System
      2.4.2.2 Power Traction System (Catenary System)
      2.4.2.3 Footways, Parapets/Handrails, Drainage and Lighting Systems
References

CHAPTER 3 - ACTIONS AND STRUCTURAL SAFETY

3.1 Types of Actions and Limit State Design
3.2 Permanent Actions
3.3 Highway Traffic Loading – Vertical Forces
3.4 Braking, Acceleration and Centrifugal Forces in Highway Bridges
3.5 Actions on Footways or Cycle Tracks and Parapets, of Highway Bridges
3.6 Actions for Abutments and Walls Adjacent to Highway Bridges 75
3.7 Traffic Loads for Railway Bridges
   3.7.1 General
   3.7.2 Load Models
3.8 Braking, Acceleration and Centrifugal Forces in Railway Bridges: Nosing Forces
3.9 Actions on Maintenance Walkways and Earth Pressure Effects for Railway Bridges
3.10 Dynamic Load Effects
    3.10.1 Basic Concepts
    3.10.2 Dynamic Effects for Railway Bridges
3.11 Wind Actions and Aerodynamic Stability of Bridges
    3.11.1 Design Wind Velocities and Peak Velocities Pressures
    3.11.2 Wind as a Static Action on Bridge Decks and Piers
    3.11.3 Aerodynamic Response: Basic Concepts
        3.11.3.1 Vortex Shedding
        3.11.3.2 Divergent Amplitudes: Aerodynamic Instability
3.12 Hydrodynamic Actions
3.13 Thermal Actions and Thermal Effects
    3.13.1 Basic Concepts
    3.13.2 Thermal Effects
    3.13.3 Design Values
3.14 Shrinkage, Creep and Relaxation in Concrete Bridges
3.15 Actions Due to Imposed Deformations. Differential Settlements
3.16 Actions Due to Friction in Bridge Bearings
3.17 Seismic Actions
   3.17.1 Basis of Design
   3.17.2 Response Spectrums for Bridge Seismic Analysis
3.18 Accidental Actions
3.19 Actions During Construction
3.20 Basic Criteria for Bridge Design
References

CHAPTER 4 – CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND EXECUTION METHODS

4.1 Concept Design: Introduction
4.2 Span Distribution and Deck Continuity
   4.2.1 Span Layout
   4.2.2 Deck Continuity and Expansion Joints
4.3 The Influence of the Execution Method
   4.3.1 A Prestressed Concrete Box Girder Deck
   4.3.2 A Steel?Concrete Composite Steel Deck
   4.3.3 Concept Design and Execution: Preliminary Conclusions
4.4 Superstructure: Concrete Bridges
   4.4.1 Options for the Bridge Deck
   4.4.2 The Concrete Material – Main Proprieties
      4.4.2.1 Concrete
      4.4.2.2 Reinforcing Steel
      4.4.2.3 Prestressing Steel
   4.4.3 Slab and Voided Slab Decks
   4.4.5 Precasted Slab?Girder Decks
   4.4.6 Box Girder Decks
4.5 Superstructure: Steel and Steel?Concrete Composite Bridges
   4.5.1 Options for Bridge Type: Plated Structures
   4.5.2 Steels for Metal Bridges and Corrosion Protection
      4.5.2.1 Materials and Weldability
      4.5.2.2 Corrosion Protection
   4.5.3 Slab Deck: Concrete Slabs and Orthotropic Plates
      4.5.3.1 Concrete Slab Decks
      4.5.3.2 Steel Orthotropic Plate Decks
   4.5.4 Plate Girder Bridges
      4.5.4.1 Superstructure Components
      4.5.4.2 Preliminary Design of the Main Girders
      4.5.4.3 Vertical Bracing System
      4.5.4.4 Horizontal Bracing System
   4.5.5 Box Girder Bridges
      4.5.5.1 General
      4.5.5.2 Superstructure Components
      4.5.5.3 Pre?Design of Composite Box Girder Sections
      4.5.5.4 Pre?Design of Diaphragms or Cross Frames
   4.5.6 Typical Steel Quantities
4.6 Superstructure: Execution Methods
   4.6.1 General Aspects
   4.6.2 Execution Methods for Concrete Decks
      4.6.2.1 General
      4.6.2.2 Scaffoldings and Falseworks
      4.6.2.3 Formwork Launching Girders
      4.6.2.4 Incremental Launching
      4.6.2.5 Cantilever Construction
      4.6.2.6 Precasted Segmental Cantilever Construction
      4.6.2.7 Other Methods
   4.6.3 Erection Methods for Steel and Composite Bridges
      4.6.3.1 Erection Methods, Transport and Erection Joints
      4.6.3.2 Erection with Cranes Supported from the Ground
      4.6.3.3 Incremental Launching
      4.6.3.4 Erection by the Cantilever Method
      4.6.3.5 Other Methods
4.7 Substructure: Conceptual Design and Execution Methods
   4.7.1 Elements and Functions
   4.7.2 Bridge Piers
      4.7.2.1 Structural Materials and Pier Typology
      4.7.2.2 Piers Pre?Design
      4.7.2.3 Execution Method of the Deck and Pier Concept Design
      4.7.2.4 Construction Methods for Piers
   4.7.3 Abutments 241
      4.7.3.1 Functions of the Abutments
      4.7.3.2 Abutment Concepts and Typology
   4.7.4 Bridge Foundations
      4.7.4.1 Foundation Typology
      4.7.4.2 Direct Foundations
      4.7.4.3 Pile Foundations
      4.7.4.4 Special Bridge Foundations
 References

CHAPTER 5 – AESTHETICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRATION

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Integration and Formal Aspects
5.3 Bridge Environment
5.4 Shape and Function
5.5 Orderand Continuity
5.6 Slenderness and Transparency
5.7 Symmetries, Asymmetries and Proximity with Other Bridges
5.8 Piers Aesthetics
5.9 Colours, Shadows, and Detailing
5.10 Urban Bridges

CHAPTER 6 – SUPERSTRUCTURE: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Structural Models
6.3 Deck Slabs
   6.3.1 General
   6.3.2 Overall Bending: Shear Lag Effects
   6.3.3 Local Bending Effects: Influence Surfaces
   6.3.4 Elastic Restraint of Deck Slabs
   6.3.5 Transverse Prestressing of Deck Slabs
   6.3.6 Steel Orthotropic Plate Decks
6.4 Transverse Analysis of Bridge Decks
   6.4.1 Use of Influence Lines for Transverse Load Distribution
   6.4.2 Transverse Load Distribution Coefficients for Load Effects
   6.4.3 Transverse Load Distribution Methods
      6.4.3.1 Rigid Cross Beam Methods: Courbon Method
      6.4.3.2 Transverse Load Distribution on Cross Beams
      6.4.3.3 Extensions of the Courbon Method: Influence of Torsional Stiffness of Main Girders and Deformability of Cross Beams
      6.4.3.4 The Orthotropic Plate Approach
      6.4.3.5 Other Transverse Load Distribution Methods
6.5 Deck Analysis by Grid and FEM Models
   6.5.1 Grid Models
      6.5.1.1 Fundamentals
      6.5.1.2 Deck Modelling
      6.5.1.3 Properties of Beam Elements in Grid Models
      6.5.1.4 Limitations and Extensions of Plane Grid Modelling
   6.5.2 FEM Models
      6.5.2.1 Fundamentals
      6.5.2.2 FEM for Analysis of Bridge Decks
   6.6.1 Generalities – Geometrical Non?Linear Effects: Cables and Arches
   6.6.2 Frame and Arch Effects
   6.6.3 Effect of Longitudinal Variation of Cross Sections
   6.6.4 Torsion Effects in Bridge Decks – Non?Uniform Torsion
   6.6.5 Torsion in Steel?Concrete Composite Decks
      6.6.5.1 Composite Box Girder Decks
      6.6.5.2 Composite Plate Girder Decks
      6.6.5.3 Transverse Load Distribution in Open Section Decks
   6.6.6 Curved Bridges
      6.6.6.1 Statics of Curved Bridges
      6.6.6.2 Simply Supported Curved Bridge Deck
      6.6.6.3 Approximate Method
      6.6.6.4 Bearing System and Deck Elongations
6.7 Influence of Construction Methods on Superstructure Analysis
   6.7.1 Span by Span Erection of Prestressed Concrete Decks
   6.7.2 Cantilever Construction of Prestressed Concrete Decks
   6.7.3 Prestressed Concrete Decks with Prefabricated Girders
   6.7.4 Steel?Concrete Composite Decks
6.8 Prestressed Concrete Decks: Design Aspects
   6.8.1 Generalities
   6.8.2 Design Concepts and Basic Criteria
   6.8.3 Durability
   6.8.4 Concept of Partial Prestressed Concrete (PPC)
   6.8.5 Particular Aspects of Bridges Built by Cantilevering
   6.8.6 Ductility and Precasted Segmental Construction
      6.8.6.1 Internal and External Prestressing
   6.8.7 Hyperstatic Prestressing Effects
   6.8.8 Deflections, Vibration and Fatigue
6.9 Steel and Composite Decks
   6.9.1 Generalities
   6.9.2 Design Criteria for ULS
   6.9.3 Design Criteria for SLS
      6.9.3.1 Stress Limitations and Web Breathing
      6.9.3.2 Deflection Limitations and Vibrations
   6.9.5 Web Design of Plate and Box Girder Sections
      6.9.5.1 Web Under in Plane Bending and Shear Forces
      6.9.5.2 Flange Induced Buckling
      6.9.5.3 Webs Under Patch Loading
      6.9.5.4 Webs under Interaction of Internal Forces
   6.9.6 Transverse Web Stiffeners
   6.9.7 Stiffened Panels in Webs and Flanges
 6.10 Reference to Special Bridges: Bowstring Arches and Cable?Stayed Bridges
   6.10.1 Generalities
   6.10.2 Bowstring Arch Bridges
       6.10.2.1 Geometry, Slenderness and Stability
       6.10.2.2 Hanger System and Anchorages
       6.10.2.3 Analysis of the Superstructure
   6.10.3 Cable?Stayed Bridges
       6.10.3.1 Basic Concepts
       6.10.3.2 Total and Partial Adjustment Staying Options
       6.10.3.3 Deck Slenderness, Static and Aerodynamic Stability
       6.10.3.4 Stays and Stay Cable Anchorages
       6.10.3.5 Analysis of the Superstructure
References

CHAPTER 7 – SUBSTRUCTURE: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

7.1 Introduction4
7.2 Distribution of Forces Between Piers and Abutments
   7.2.1 Distribution of a Longitudinal Force
   7.2.2 Action Due to Imposed Deformations
   7.2.3 Distribution of a Transverse Horizontal Force
   7.2.4 Effect of Deformation of Bearings and Foundations
7.3 Design of Bridge Bearings
   7.3.1 Bearing Types
   7.3.2 Elastomeric Bearings
   7.3.3 Neoprene?Teflon Bridge Bearings
   7.3.4 Elastomeric ‘Pot Bearings’
   7.3.5 Metal Bearings
   7.3.6 Concrete Hinges
7.4 Reference to Seismic Devices
   7.4.1 Concept
   7.4.2 Seismic Dampers
7.5 Abutments: Analysis and Design
   7.5.1 Actions and Design Criteria
   7.5.2 Front and Wing Walls
   7.5.3 Anchored Abutments
7.6 Bridge Piers: Analysis and Design
   7.6.1 Basic Concepts
      7.6.1.1 Pre?design
      7.6.1.2 Slenderness and Elastic Critical Load
      7.6.1.3 The Effect of Geometrical Initial Imperfections
      7.6.1.4 The Effect of Cracking in Concrete Bridge Piers
      7.6.1.5 Bridge Piers as ‘Beam Columns’
      7.6.1.6 The Effect of Imposed Displacements
      7.6.1.7 The Overall Stability of a Bridge Structure
      7.6.1.8 Design Bucking Length of Bridge Piers
   7.6.2 Elastic Analysis of Bridge Piers
   7.6.3 Elastoplastic Analysis of Bridge Piers: Ultimate Resistance
   7.6.4 Creep Effects on Concrete Bridge Piers
   7.6.5 Analysis of Bridge Piers by Numerical Methods
   7.6.6 Overall Stability of a Bridge Structure
References
 
CHAPTER 8 – DESIGN EXAMPLES: CONCRETE AND COMPOSITE OPTIONS

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Basic Data and Bridge Options
   8.2.1 Bridge Function and Layout
   8.2.2 Typical Deck Cross Sections
   8.2.3 Piers, Abutments and Foundations
   8.2.4 Materials Adopted
     8.2.4.1 Prestressed Concrete Deck
    8.2.4.2 Steel?concrete Composite Deck
   8.2.5 Deck Construction
8.3 Hazard Scenarios and Actions
   8.3.1 Limit States and Structural Safety
   8.3.2 Actions
       8.3.2.1 Permanent Actions and Imposed Deformations
       8.3.2.2 Variable Actions
8.4 Prestressed Concrete Solution
   8.4.1 Preliminary Design of the Deck
   8.4.2 Structural Analysis and Slab Checks
   8.4.3 Structural Analysis of the Main Girders
      8.4.3.1 Traffic Loads: Transverse and Longitudinal Locations
      8.4.3.2 Internal Forces
      8.4.3.3 Prestressing Layout and Hyperstatic Effects
      8.4.3.4 Influence of the Construction Stages
   8.4.4 Structural Safety Checks: Longitudinal Direction
      8.4.4.1 Decompression Limit State – Prestressing Design
      8.4.4.2 Ultimate Limit States – Bending and Shear Resistance
8.5 Steel–Concrete Composite Solution
   8.5.1 Preliminary Design of the Deck
   8.5.2 Structural Analysis and Slab Design Checks
   8.5.3 Structural Analysis of the Main Girders
      8.5.3.1 Traffic Loads Transverse and Longitudinal Positioning
      8.5.3.2 Internal Forces
      8.5.3.3 Shrinkage Effects
      8.5.3.4 Imposed Deformation Effect
      8.5.3.5 Influence of the Construction Stages
8.5.4 Safety Checks: Longitudinal Direction
      8.5.4.1 Ultimate Limit States – Bending and Shear Resistance
      8.5.4.2 Serviceability Limit States – Stresses and Crack Widths Control
References

ANNEX - BUCKLING AND ULTIMATE STRENGTH OF FLAT PLATES

A.1 Critical Stresses and Buckling Modes of Flat Plates
    A.1.1 Plate Simply Supported along the four Edges and under a Uniform Compression (ψ = 1)
    A.1.2 Bending of Long Rectangular Plates Supported at both Longitudinal Edges or with a Free Edge
    A.1.3 Buckling of Rectangular Plates under Shear
A.2 Buckling of Stiffened Plates
    A.2.1 Plates with One Longitudinal Stiffener at the Centreline under Uniform Compression
    A.2.2 Plate with Two Stiffeners under Uniform Compression
    A.2.3 Plates with Three or More Longitudinal Stiffeners
    A.2.4 Stiffened Plates under Variable Compression. Approximate Formulas
A.3 Post?Buckling Behaviour and Ultimate Strength of Flat Plates
    A.3.1 Effective Width Concept
    A.3.2 Effective Width Formulas
References
 

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