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Introduction to Structures Architect's Guidebooks to Structures

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Descripción

It introduces the student to, and reminds the practitioner of, fundamental structural design principles. Beginning by introducing structural forms in nature and history, the process of design, and selecting structural systems and materials, the book then moves onto statics, mechanics of materials, and structural analysis. The final chapter provides guidance on preliminary structural design, complete with decision criteria and design tables.


Características

  • ISBN: 9781138829480
  • Páginas: 304
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2016

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido Introduction to Structures Architect's Guidebooks to Structures

Introduction to Structures - the lead book in the Architect’s Guidebook to Structures series - presents structures in simple, accessible fashion through beautiful illustrations, worked examples, and from the perspective of practicing professionals with a combined experience of over 75 years.

It introduces the student to, and reminds the practitioner of, fundamental structural design principles. Beginning by introducing structural forms in nature and history, the process of design, and selecting structural systems and materials, the book then moves onto statics, mechanics of materials, and structural analysis. The final chapter provides guidance on preliminary structural design, complete with decision criteria and design tables.

Edited by experienced professional structural engineers, with vital contributions from practicing architects, Introduction to Structures is fully illustrated, contains clear step by step examples and preliminary design guidance. Designed as a key textbook for introductory structures courses, it is also an indispensable reference for practicing architects.


Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables i
Notes on Contributors
Acknowledgments
Note on the Text

Introduction
Paul W. McMullin and Jonathan S. Price

 

1 Structures Around Us
Sarah Simchuk


1.1 Structures in Nature
1.2 Structural Innovators: Building on the Past  
1.3 Summary 12

2 The Design Process
Garth Shaw


2.1 Who Is Involved
2.2 Architect-Led Design Process: Keys to Success
2.3 Design Services
2.4 Fee and Scope of Services
2.5 Structural Input in the Process

3 Structural Systems  
Thomas Lane


3.1 Introduction
3.2 Structural System Families
3.3 Summary

4 Structural Materials
Teran Mitchell


4.1 Infuences on Determining Material Selection
4.2 Masonry
4.3 Timber
4.4 Steel
4.5 Concrete
4.6 Where We Go from Here

5 Statics: Forces in Equilibrium
Jonathan S. Price


5.1 Introduction
5.2 Historic Precedents
5.3 Vectors
5.4 Loads and Forces
5.5 Free Body Diagrams  
5.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction
5.7 The Resultant
5.8 Equilibrium
5.9 Applying Newton’s Third Law
5.10 Determinate and Indeterminate Structures
5.11 Load Path
5.12 Examples
5.13 Summary

6 Statics: Moments in Equilibrium  
Jonathan S. Price


6.1 Ground Rules, Basic Terms and Assumptions
6.2 Historic Precedents
6.3 Defnitions
6.4 Free Body Diagrams
6.5 Flow of Design Process
6.6 Support Types
6.7 Spring Supports
6.8 Moment Effect Examples
6.9 Vector Transmissibility
6.10 Center of Gravity
6.11 Determinate and Indeterminate Structures
6.12 Load Path  
6.13 A Final Example Problem
6.14 Summary

7 Mechanics of Materials
Paul W. McMullin


7.1 Material Properties
7.2 Stress and Strain  
7.3 Section Properties  
7.4 Material Behavior Modes
7.5 Stress States
7.6 Failure Theories
7.7 Where We Go from Here  

8 Codes, Loads, and the Art of Engineering
Paul W. McMullin


8.1 Building Codes  
8.2 Risk Categories
8.3 Loads  
8.4 Load Combinations  
8.5 Defection and Drift
8.6 Example
8.7 Art of Engineering  
8.8 Where We Go from Here

9 Structural Analysis: Beams
Paul W. McMullin

9.1 Symbols 162
9.2 How Do I Analyze it?
9.3 Tributary Width and Area
9.4 Beam Analysis
9.5 Column Effective Length Factors
9.6 Where We Go from Here

10 Structural Analysis: Plane Trusses and Frames
Paul W. McMullin

10.1 Truss Analysis
10.2 Portal Frame Method
10.3 Where We Go From Here

11 Preliminary Design
Garth Shaw

11.1 Goals
11.2 Level of Development
11.3 Getting Started
11.4 Getting to the Solution

Glossary

Appendix 1 List of Units
Appendix 2 List of Symbols
Appendix 3 Conversion Tables  
Bibliography
Index

Figures

1.1 Illustration of a natural stone archway
1.2 Illustration of a spider’s web
1.3 Illustration of a branch of bamboo
1.4 The Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
1.5 Borgund Stave Church, Norway
1.6 The dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence, Italy—section showing double-ribbed system
1.7 The Eiffel Tower, Paris, France
1.8 The Palazzetto dello Sporto, Rome, Italy
1.9 The Quadracci Pavilion, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
2.1 Relationship between project phases
2.2 Gateway Arch, St. Louis, Missouri
2.3 Transamerica Pyramid, San Francisco, California
3.1 The Colosseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, Rome, Italy, completed in ad
3.2 Axis diagram
3.3 Catenary chain3.4 The Gateway Arch, St Louis, Missouri, Architect: Eero Saraanin, Structural Engineer: Hannskarl Bandel, completed 1965
3.5 Structure system family diagram
3.6 Delicate Arch, Arches National Park near Moab, Utah
3.7 Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, Architect: Louis I. Kahn, Structural Engineer: August Eduard Komendant, completed 1972
3.8 The California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, Architect: Renzo Piano, Structural Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners, completed 2008
3.9 Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Memorial Bridge, Boston, Massachusetts, Engineering: Christian Menn, Ruchu Hsu with Parsons Brinckerhoff, completed 2002
3.10 The Olympiapark, Munich, Germany, Architect: Gunther Behnisch, Structural Engineer: Frei Otto, completed 1972
3.11 Allianz Arena, Munich, Germany, Architect: Herzog and De Meuron, Structural Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners, completed 2005
3.12 Miami Marine Stadium, Virginia Key, Miami, Florida, Architect: Hilario Candela, completed 1963
3.13 Kresge Auditorium, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Architect: Eero Saarinen and Associates, Structural Engineer: Amman and Whitney, completed 1955
3.14 Centre Pompidou, Paris, France, Architect: Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, Structural Engineer: Ove Arup & Partners, completed 1977
3.15 Flat Truss, South County Line Road Bridge, Spanning Flat River, Greenville, Montcalm County, Michigan
3.16 Montréal Biosphère, Montreal, Canada, Architect: Buckminster Fuller and Shoji Sadao, completed 1967
3.17 St Benedict Chapel, Sumvig, Switzerland, Architect: Peter Zumthor, completed 1988
3.18 S. R. Crown Hall, Chicago, Illinois, Architect: Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, completed 1956
3.19 Habitat 67, Montreal, Canada, Architect: Moshe Safdie, Structural Engineer: August Eduard Komendant
4.1 Relationship between parties involved in material selection
4.2 Anu Ziggurat and White Temple, Uruk (modern Iraq)
4.3 Chartres Cathedral, c. 1145–1260, Chartres, France
4.4 Sagrada Familia, Antoni Gaudí, 1882–present, Barcelona, Spain
4.5 Standard CMU wall assembly
4.7 Weathering regions of the United States
4.8 Common brick-laying patterns 51
4.9 Heddal Stave Church, c. thirteenth century, Heddal, Notodden, Norway
4.10 Balloon and platform framing
4.11 Home Insurance Building, Architect: William LeBaron Jenney, 1885, Chicago
4.12 Burj Khalifa, SOM, 2004–2010, Dubai, UAE
4.13 Standard structural steel shapes
4.14 Hadrian’s Villa, ad 125–135, Tivoli, Italy
4.15 TWA Terminal, Architect: Eero Saarinen, 1956–1962, New York
5.1 Cartesian coordinate system
5.2 Book supported by a table
5.3 Force vector terminology
5.4 Vector components
5.5 Concurrent, coplanar, and collinear vectors
5.7 Canopy example
5.8 Vector addition example
5.9 Resultant and equilibrant for previous example
5.10 Vector addition: graphical method
5.11 Weight supported by table and rope
5.12 Table supported on four legs: weight assumed equally distributed
5.13 Elevator cab balanced by a counterweight
5.14 Otis Elevator patent drawing
5.15 Elevator sheave #30
5.16 Elevator sheave #32
5.17 Weight suspended from a ceiling structure
5.18 Graphical solution to previous example
5.19 Bridge example graphical solution
6.1 Balancing moment of forces by adjusting distance to pivot point
6.2 Diver on diving board
6.3 Wrench
6.4 Wheel and axis
6.5 Couple exerting only positive moment
6.6 Axis and moments
6.7 Components
6.8 Universal joint
6.9 Weight lifter
6.10 Truck example
6.11 Truck free body diagram
6.12 Transmissibility linear forces
6.13 Transmissibility of moment and torque
6.14 Center of gravity of geometric shapes examples
6.15 Center of gravity of a combined section
6.16 Simply supported beams: (a) stable, (b) unstable in the x direction
6.17 Diving board and FBD of loads
7.1 Ruptured reinforcing steel from tension test
7.2 Relationship between demand and capacity curves
7.3 Stress and strain in a solid bar
7.4 Comparative stress–strain curves for high and low deformation behavior
7.5 Comparative energy absorption for high and low deformation behavior
7.6 Neutral axis defnition of tee section
7.7 Section properties for common shapes
7.8 First moment of area about the neutral axis
7.9 Round section for properties calculation
7.10 Rectangular section for properties calculation
7.11 Tee section for properties calculationxvii Figures
7.12 Tension yielding in a test specimen
7.13 Paperclip showing (a) elastic deformation; (b) no stress; (c) plastic defection; (d) permanent plastic deformation
7.14 Buckling behavior of a straw: (a) single curvature; (b) double curvature
7.15 Fatigue cracks in truss eyebar
7.16 Fatigue failure in paperclip
7.17 Fast fracture in gas pipeline
7.18 Fracture toughness variation with thickness
7.19 Old barn showing creep deformation
7.20 Axial stress: (a) tension; (b) compression
7.21 Flexural (bending) stress distribution
7.22 Shear stress distribution
7.23 Torsion stress distribution
.24 Thermal effect in (a) restrained and (b) unrestrained beams
7.25 Combined axial compression and fexural stress
7.26 Stress fow in a plate with a hole
7.27 Tension light support
7.28 Bending light support
7.29 Torsion light support
7.30 Relationship between size and structural performance
8.1 Density of people corresponding to a live load of (a) 50 lb/ft 2 and (b) 100 lb/ft 2
8.2 Parking garage layout showing (a) less effective and (b) effective shear wall layouts
8.3 Ponding phenomenon in light framed roofs
8.4 Drifted snow load creating an unbalanced roof load
8.5 Ground snow load map for continental United States
8.6 Snow load confguration on a fat roof
8.7 Ice loading on a communications tower structure
8.8 Soil or water pressure distribution on concrete wall Soil or water pressure distribution on concrete wall
8.9 Wind speed map for Category II structures in continental United States
8.10 Short period acceleration S S map for continental United States
8.11 Vertical seismic force distribution
8.12 Loads in a combination not adding up to a single number
8.13 Example structure
9.1 Analysis symbol explanation
9.2 Roller (left) and pin (right) supports on bridge truss
9.3 Two types of fxed connections at the end of steel beams
9.4 Simple beam that can be analyzed using hand calculation methods
9.5 (a) Complex structure and loading lending itself to (b) a computer-generated model
9.6 (a) Statically determinate beam photo and (b) equivalent sketch
9.7 (a) Statically indeterminate beam photo—between columns, and (b) equivalent sketch
9.8 Sketches of (a) statically determinate and (b) indeterminate beams, trusses, and frames
9.9 Indeterminate braced frame
9.10 Determinate truss
9.11 Indeterminate truss
9.12 Indeterminate moment frame
9.13 Tributary width determination for beams
9.14 Tributary area determination for columns
9.15 Multi-story tributary area determination
9.16 Development of shear and moment diagrams
9.17 Step-by-step shear diagram development
9.18 Step-by-step moment diagram development
9.19 Example shear and moment diagram shapes for various loading and boundary conditions
9.20 Shear and moment diagram example
9.21 Point load, single-span, beam solutions and diagrams
9.22 Uniform distributed load, single span, beam solutions and diagrams
9.23 Triangular distributed load, single-span, beam solutions and diagrams
9.24 Moment load, single span, beam solutions and diagrams  
9.25 Point load, double-span, beam solutions and diagrams
9.26 Uniform distributed load, double-span, beam solutions and diagrams
9.27 Fixed end beam with triangular distributed load
9.28 Cantilevered beam with triangular load
9.29 Simply supported beam with point load
9.30 Simply supported beam with uniform distributed load  
9.31 Simply supported beam with combined point and uniform loads  
9.32 Column effective length factors for simple structures, after AISC Steel Construction Manual
10.1 Harry S. Truman Bridge, Kansas City, Missouri,
10.2 Basic truss layout and load diagram
10.3 Method of Joints, showing equivalent forces where members have been cut
10.5 Common purlin to truss connection detail
10.7 Method of Joints example
10.8 Joint A
10.9 Joint B
10.10 Joint C
10.11 Joint H
10.12 Joint G
10.13 Methods of Joints member force summary
10.14 Method of Sections, free body diagram
10.15 Method of Sections example
10.16 Graphical method for truss solution
10.17 Member force direction determination for reference joints (a) AB1G and (b) G123
10.18 Example graphical solutions for various trusses and loads
10.19 Maxwell diagram truss labeling
10.20 Example force diagram
10.21 Example reference joint AB1G
10.22 Example reference joint BC21
10.23 Example reference joint 123G
10.24 Example reference joint 34G
10.25 Example reference joint CD5432
10.26 Example reference joint 56G4
10.27 Example member force direction determination for reference joints (a) AB1G and (b) CD5432
10.28 Example member force summary
10.29 Moment frame in offce building
10.30 Portal frame simplifcation of moment frame
10.31 Shear, moment, axial and defection diagrams for a portal frame
10.32 Portal example loads and dimensions
10.33 Portal example, top segment
10.34 Portal example, top left segment
10.35 Portal example, top middle segment
11.1 Warehouse example layout
11.2 Offce example layout

Tables

3.1 Span ranges for common structural systems
4.1a Common structural material strengths, imperial measures
4.1b Common structural material strengths, metric measures
5.1 Canopy example: data
5.2 Vector addition example: data
5.3 Elevator example, sheave #30: data
6.1 Support types
7.1a Representative material properties, imperial measures
7.1b Representative material properties, metric measures
8.1 Structural importance factors
8.2 Densities of common materials
8.3a Dead loads of common materials, imperial measures
8.3b Dead loads of common materials, metric measures
8.4a Dead loads of timber framing materials, imperial measures
8.4b Dead loads of timber framing materials, metric measures
8.5 Dead loads of concrete masonry unit walls
8.6 Common live loads
8.7 Snow exposure factor C  e
8.8 Thermal factor C t
8.9 Lateral soil pressure coeffcients and application
8.10 Example wind pressures for varying speeds, heights, and exposure categories
8.11 Seismic response modifcation factors and height limitations for selected structural systems
8.12 Representative snow, wind, and seismic data for various cities in the USA
8.13 Load combinations
8.14a Typical defection limits for beams
8.14b Allowable defection values for various criteria and lengths
8.15a Seismic drift limits for multi-story structures
8.15b Allowable drift values for various criteria and lengths
8.16 Roof dead loads
8.17 Floor dead loads
9.1 Column load example
11.1 Bay spacing and foor-to-foor heights for varying building types
11.2 Structural material design criteria
11.3 Structural system design criteria
11.4a Horizontal member sizing guide, imperial measures
11.4b Horizontal member sizing guide, metric measures
11.5a Column sizing guide, imperial measures
11.5b Column sizing guide, metric measure



 

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