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Understanding and Using Structural Concepts

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Understanding and Using Structural Concepts, Second Edition provides numerous demonstrations using physical models and practical examples. A significant amount of material, not found in current textbooks, is included to enhance the understanding of structural concepts and stimulate interest in learning, creative thinking, and design.


Características

  • ISBN: 978-1-49-870729-9
  • Páginas: 374
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2016

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: Inmediata

Contenido Understanding and Using Structural Concepts

Understanding and Using Structural Concepts, Second Edition provides numerous demonstrations using physical models and practical examples. A significant amount of material, not found in current textbooks, is included to enhance the understanding of structural concepts and stimulate interest in learning, creative thinking, and design.

This is achieved through:

    Connecting abstract theory with visual and practical examples
    Providing simple illustrative demonstration models, which can be used in conventional class teaching, to capture the essence of the concepts
    Including associated engineering examples, which demonstrate the application of the concepts and help to bridge the gap between theory and practice
    Incorporating the development of teaching material and innovative examples relating to structural concepts based on current research work

In addition to new models and examples, Understanding and Using Structural Concepts, Second Edition provides a third part, Synthesis. This considers the relationships between static and modal stiffnesses, static and dynamic problems, experimental and theoretical studies, and theory and practice. All of these relationships are linked to structural concepts. This book will be of interest to all engineers, from students to consultants. It will be useful to civil and structural engineering students, including graduate students, in all years of their courses as well as the more technically-minded architecture students and practicing engineers.

 

Overview of Structural Concepts

What Are Structural Concepts?
- A structural Concept Derived from theory
- A concept Observed in Practice

Why Study Structural Concepts?

Approaches to Learning Structural Concepts
- Theoretical Content
- Physical Models
- Practical Examples
- Engaging Students
Organisation of the Text
How to Use This Book
- For Students
- For Lectures
- For Engineers

STATICS

Equilibrium


Definitions and Concepts
Theoretical Background
Model Demonstrations
- Action and reaction Forces
- Stable and Unstable Equilibrium
- Wood-Bottle System
- Magnetic Float Train
Practical Examples
- Barrier
- Footbridge
- Equilibrium Kitchen Scale
- State Performance
- Magnetic Float Train
- Dust Tray

Centre of Mass


- Definitions and concepts
- Theoretical Background
- Model Demonstrations
  - Centre of Mass of a Piece of Cardboard of Arbitrary Shape
  - Centre of Mass and centroid of a Body
  - Centre of Mass of a Body in a Horizontal Plane
  - Centre of Mass of a Body in a Vertical Plane
  - Centre of Mass and  motion
- Practical Examples
  - Cranes on construction Sites
  - Eiffel Tower
  - Display Unit
  - Kio Towers


Effect of Different Cross Sections

- Definitions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
- Model Demonstrations
  - Two Rectangular Beams and I-Section Beam
  - Lifting a Book Using a Bookmark
- Practical Examples
  - Steel-Framed Building
  - Railway Bridge
  - I-section Members with Holes ( Cellular Beams and Columns )

Stress Distribution


- Concepts
- Theoretical Background
- Model Demonstrations
  - Balloons on Nails
  - Uniform and Nonuniform Stress Distributions
  - Stress Concentration
  - Core of a Section
Practical Examples
- Flat Shoes versus High-Hell Shoes
- Leaning Tower of Pisa

Bending


- Definitions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
- Model Demonstrations
  - Assumptions in Beam Bending
  - This Beam and Thick Beam
Practical Examples
- Profiles of Girders
- Reducing Bending Moments Using Overhangs
- Failure due to Bending
- Deformation of a Staple due to Bending

Shear and Torsion


- Definitions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
  - Shear Stresses due to Bending
  - Shear Stresses due to torsion
  - Shear Centre
Model Demonstrations
- Effect of Torsion
- Effect of Shear Stress
- Effect of Shear Force
- Open and Closed Sections Subject to torsion with Warping
- Open and Closed Sections subject to torsion without Warping
- Shear Centre of a Thin-Walled Open Section
Practical Examples
- Composite Section of a Beam
- Shear Centre of a Thin Walled Open Sectionç
- Opening a Drink Bottle
- Box Girder Highway Bridge

Span and Deflection


- Concepts
- Theoretical Background
- Model Demonstrations
  - Effect of Spans
  - Effect of Boundary Conditions
  - Bending Moment at One Fixed End of Beam
  - Lateral Stiffnessess of vertical Members
Practical Examples
  - Column Supports
  - Phenomenon of Prop Roots
  - Metal Props Used in Structures

Direct Force Paths


- Definitions, Concepts and Criteria
- Theoretical Background
  - Introduction
  - Concepts for Achieving a Stiffer Structure
    - Definition of stiffness
    - Pin-jointed structures
    - Beam types of structure
    - Expression of the concepts
- Implementation
  - Five criteria
  - Numerical verification
- Discussion
  - Safety,economy and elegance
  - Optimum design and conceptual design
Model Demonstrations
- Experimental Verification
- Direct and Zigzag force Paths
Practical Examples
- Bracing Systems of tall builing
- Bracing Systems of scaffolding structures
  - Collapse of a scaffolding structures
  - Some bracing systems used for scaffolding structures

Smaller Internal Forces

- Concepts and a Criterion
- Theoretical Background
  - Introduction
  - Ring and tied ring
Model Demonstrations
- Pair of Rubber Ring
- Post-Tensioned plastic Beams
Practical Examples
- Raleigh Arena
- Zhejiang Dragon Sports Centre
- Cable-Stayed Bridge
- Floor Structure Experiencing Excessive Vibration
- Pitched Roof

Buckling

- Definitions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
   - Basics of Buckling
   - Buckling of a Column with Different Boundary Conditions
   - Lateral Torsional Buckling of Beams
   - Relationship between Maximum Displacement and Buckling Load of a Straight Member
   - Model Demonstrations
      - Buckling Shapes of Plastic columns
      - Buckling Loads and Boundary Conditions
      - Lateral Buckling of Beams
      - Buckling of an Empty Aluminium Can
      - Buckling Load of a Straight Member Predicted through a Bending Test Practical Examples
     -  Buckling of Bracing Members
     -  Buckling of a Box Girder
     -  Prevention of Lateral Buckling of Beams
     -  Bi-Stability of a Slap Band

Prestress

- Definions and Concepts
  - Theoretical Backgroung
     - Concentrically Prestressed Beams
     - Eccentrically Prestressed Beams
     - Externally Prestressed Beams
 - Model Demonstrations
    - Prestressed Wooden Blocks Forming a Beam and a Column
    - Toy Using Prestressing
 - Practical Examples
   - Centrally Post-Tensioned Column
   - Eccentrically Post-Tensioned Beam
   - Spider´s Web
   - Cable-Net Roof

Horizontal Movements of Structures Induced by Vertical Loads

- Concepts
- Theoretical Background
   - Static Response
   - Symmetric system
   - Antisymmetric system
   - Asymmetric  system
   - Futher comparison
- Dynamic response
- Model Demonstrations
   - Symmetric frame
   - Antisymmetric frame
   - Asymmetric  frame
- Practical Examples
   - Grandstand
   - Building foor
   - Railway Bridges

DYNAMICS

- Energy Exchange


- Definitions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
- Model Demonstrations
   - Moving Wheel
   - Collision Balls
   - Dropping a Series of Balls
- Practical Examples
  - Rollercoasters
  - Torch without a Battery

- Pendulums

- Definitions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
   - Simple Pendulun
   - Generalised Suspended system
      - Symmetric (vertical) vibration
      - Antisymmetric ( lateral and rotational ) vibration
   - Translational and Rotational Suspended Systems
- Model Demonstrations
   - Natural Frequency of suspended Systems
   - Effect of Added Masses
   - Static Behaviour of an Outward-Inclined Suspended System
- Practical Examples
   - Inclined Suspended Wooden Bridge in a Playground
   - Seismic isolation of a Floor
   - Foucault Pendulum

Free Vibration

- Definitions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
   - Single-Degree-of-Freedom System
   - Generalised Single-Degree-of Freedom System
   - Multi-Degree-of Freedom System
   - Relationship between Fundamental Natural Frequency and Maximun
     Displacement of a Beam
- Model Demonstrations
   - Free Vibration of a Pendulum System
   - Vibration Decay and natural Frequency
   - Overcritically Damped System
   - Mode Shapes of a Discrete Model
   - Mode Shapes of a Continuous Model
- Practical Examples
  - Music Box
  - Measurement of Fundamental Natural Frequency of a Building through
    Free Vibration Generated Using Vibrators
  - Measurement of Natural Frequencies of a Stack through Vibration Generated by the Environment


Resonance

- Definions and Concepts
- Theoretical Background
  - SDOF System Subjected to Harmonic Load
     - Equation of motion and its solution
     - Dynamic magnification factor
     - Phase lag
  - SDOF System Subject to a Harmonic Support Movement
     - Resonance Frequency
- Model Demonstrations
   - Dynamic Response of an SDOF System Subject to Harmonic Support Movements
      - Effect of Resonance
- Practical Examples
  - London Millennium Footbridge
  - Avoidance of Resonance: Design of Structures Used for Pop Concerts
  - Measurement of Resonance Frequency of a Building
  - An Entertaining Resonance Phenomenon

Damping in Structures

- Concepts
- Theoretical Background
   - Change of Dynamic Properties of Systems
   - Tuned Mass Dampers
- Model Demonstrations
  - Tuned Mass Damper
  - Tuned Liquid Damper
  - Vibration Isolation
  - Pendulum Tuned Mass Damper
- Practical Examples
  - Tyres Used for Vibration Isolation
  - London Eye
  - London Millennium Footbridge

Human Body Models in Structural Vibration

- Concepts
- Theoretical Background
   - Brief introduction to Human-Structure Interaction
   - Identification of Human Body Models in Structural Vibration
- Demonstration Tests
  - Body Model of a Standing Person in the Vertical Direction
  - Body Model of a Standing Person in the Lateral Direction
- Practical Examples
  - Effect of Stationary Spectators on a Grandstand
  - Calculation of natural Frequencies of a Grandstand
  - Dynamic Response of a Structure Used at Pop Concerts
    - Indirect Measurement of fundamental Natural Frequency of Standing Person
    - Indirect Measurement of fundamental Natural Frequency of a Chicken

SYNTHESIS

Static and Modal Stiffnesses


- General Comment on Stiffness
- Definitions of the Static Stiffness and Modal Striffness
   - Static Stiffness
   - Modal Stiffness
      - Numerical method
      - Relationship betwenn modal Stiffnesses and modal mass
      - Energy method
- Relationship between Static and Modal Stiffnesses of Structure
- Verification
  - Analytical Verification
    - Simply supported beam
    - Simply supported rectangular plate
  - Experimental verification
    - Static tests
    - Impact tests
    - Calcultations
  - Numerical verification
  - Applications
    - Use of Stiffness Measurement of a composite Floor
    - Displacement of a Structure Subjected to Rhythmic Human Loads
    - Measuring Static Stiffness and Loads on Structures
       - Determining the static stiffness of a footbridge
       - Checking the proof load of a bridge
- Discussion
- Summary

Static and Dynamic Problems

- Preliminary Comments
- Maximum Displacement and Fundamental Natural Frequency
   - Relationship Equations
   - Examples
- Buckling Load and Fundamental Natural Frequency
   - Relationship Equation
   - Human Jumping Loads
- Periodic Dynamic Loads and Corresponding Static Loads
   - Relationship Equation
   - Human Jumping Loads
- Tension Force and Fundamental Natural Frequency
   - Relationship Equation
   - Tension Force and Natural Frequency of a Straigh Tension Bar
   - Tension Force in the Cables in the London Eye
-  Summary

Experimental and Theoretical Studies

- Characteristics of Experimental and Theoretical Studies
   - Experimental Studies
   - Theoretical Studies
   - Basic for Combining Experimental and Theoretical Studies
- Modelling the Relationships between Experimental and Theoretical Studies
- Comparison Model
   - Model and Features
   - Steel-Framed Building
   - Appropiate Floor Model
- Integration Model
   - Model and Features
   - Dynamic Response of a Reinforced Concrete Beam
   - Floor in a Sport Centre
- Verification Model
   - Model and Features
   - Ratificaction of the Authencity of an Assumption
   - Verification of Two Predictions
- Explanation Model
   - Model and Features
   - Effect of Stationary People in Structural Vibration
   - Lateral Stiffness of Temporary Grandstands
- Creation Model
   - Model and Features
   - Measurement of Human Whole-Body Frequency
   - Identification of Possible Cracks in the Pinnacles at Westmister
- Links between the Relationship Models

Theory and Practice

- Preliminary Comments
- Theoretical and Practical Sources for Structural Concepts
-  Relationship between Theory and Practice
   - Structural Concepts and intutive Understanding
   - Sttuctural Concepts and Physical Measures
   - Theory and Practice
- Bridging the Gaps between Theory and Practice
  - Downward Approach:From Theory to Practice
  - Upward Approach: From Practice to Theory
  - Indirdisciplinary Approach.Combining Practice, Research and Teaching
    - Designing for Stiffer structures
    - Horizontal resonance of a frame structure due to vertical dynamic loading


Summary

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