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Tunnel Fire Dynamics

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Descripción

This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues


Características

  • ISBN: 9781493945290
  • Páginas: 504
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2014

Compra bajo pedidoDisponibilidad: 3 a 7 Días

Contenido Tunnel Fire Dynamics

Closely analyzes tunnel ventilation systems, and serves as a reference guide for optimizing fire safety
Presents a unique combination of theoretical science and practical engineering in tunnel fire safety
Examines the major issues facing fire safety engineers in tunnels, and outlines solutions for each

This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Characteristics of Tunnel Fires
1.3 Mitigation Systems in Tunnels
1.4 Incidents in Tunnel
1.4.1 Fires in Road Tunnels
1.4.2 Fires in Rail Tunnels
1.4.3 Fires in Metro Tunnels
1.5 Summary
References

2 Fuel and Ventilation Controlled Fires


2.1 Introduction
2.2 Fire Development in Building Fires
2.3 Fire Development in Tunnel Fires
2.4 Fuel or Ventilation Control in a Compartment Fire
2.5 Fuel or Ventilation Control in a Tunnel with Longitudinal Flow
2.5.1 Fuel Control
2.5.2 Ventilation Control
2.5.3 Determination of Combustion Mode
2.6 Effects of Vitiation on the Combustion Process
2.7 Summary
References

3 Tunnel Fire Tests

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Overview of Large-Scale Tunnel Experiments
3.3 Large-Scale Tunnel Fire Tests
3.3.1 Ofenegg 1965
3.3.2 Glasgow 1970
3.3.3 The West Meon Tests in Early 1970s
3.3.4 Zwenberg 1975
3.3.5 P.W.R.I 1980
3.3.6 TUB-VTT Tests 1986
3.3.7 EUREKA EU499 Tests 1990–1992
3.3.8 Memorial Tunnel Tests 1993–1995
3.3.9 Shimizu No. 3 2001
3.3.10 2nd Benelux Tests 2002
3.3.11 Runehamar 2003
3.3.12 METRO Tests 2011
3.3.13 Carleton University Laboratory Train Tests 2011
3.3.14 Singapore Tests 2011
3.3.15 Runehamar Test 2013
3.4 Model Scale Fire Tests
3.4.1 The TNO Tests
3.4.2 Automatic Water Spray System Tests
3.4.3 Longitudinal Ventilation Tests
3.4.4 Point Extraction Ventilation Tests
3.4.5 Tunnel Cross-Section Tests
3.5 Summary
References

4 Heat Release Rates in Tunnels

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Measured HRR in Different Vehicles
4.2.1 Road Vehicles
4.2.2 Railway Rolling Stock
4.3 Parameters Influencing the HRR
4.3.1 Heat Feedback
4.3.2 Effects of Tunnel Geometry
4.3.3 Effects of Ventilation on Peak HRR
4.3.4 Fuel-Controlled Fires
4.3.5 Ventilation-Controlled Fires
4.4 HRR per Exposed Fuel Surface Area
4.4.1 Liquids
4.4.2 Solid Materials
4.4.3 Vehicle Fires
4.5 Summary
References

5 Fire Growth Rates in Tunnels

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Theory of Fire Growth Rate
5.2.1 Opposed Flow Spread (Upstream)
5.2.2 Wind-Aided Spread (Downstream)
5.2.3 Relationship Between FGR and Flame Spread Rate
5.2.4 Fuels Consisting of Several Parts
5.3 Correlations for Fire Growth Rate
5.3.1 Comparison with Model Scale Tests
5.3.2 Comparison with Full Scale Tests
5.4 The Effects of Windbreaks on Fire Growth Rates
5.5 Summary
References

6 Design Fire Curves

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Design Fire Methods
6.2.1 Constant Values for Design Fires
6.2.2 Time Dependent Methods for Design Fires
6.3 Exponential Design Fire Curve Method with Superposition
6.3.1 Determination of Design Fire Scenarios
6.3.2 Maximum Heat Release Rate
6.3.3 Time to Maximum Heat Release Rate
6.3.4 Energy Content
6.3.5 Reconstruction of a Large Scale Test
6.3.6 Design Fire for a Tram Carriage
6.3.7 Design Fire for a Road Vehicle
6.4 New Concept for Design Curves
6.4.1 Theoretical Aspects
6.4.2 Calculation
6.5 Summary
References

7 Combustion Products from Fires

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Combustion and Fire Chemistry
7.3 Yields
7.4 Emissions from Fires in Vehicles and Tunnels
7.5 Effect of Ventilation Condition
7.6 Summary
References

8 Gas Temperatures

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Interaction of Ventilation Flow with Fire Plume
8.3 Maximum Ceiling Gas Temperature
8.3.1 Fire Plume Mass Flow Rate in a Ventilated Flow
8.3.2 Maximum Ceiling Gas Temperature in a Small Fire
8.3.3 Maximum Ceiling Gas Temperature in a Large Fire
8.4 Position of Maximum Ceiling Gas Temperature
8.5 Ceiling Gas Temperature Distribution
8.6 One-Dimensional Simple Model
8.7 Summary
References

9 Flame Length

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Overview of Flame Length in Open and Enclosure Fires
9.3 Overview of Flame Length in Tunnel Fires
9.4 Flame Lengths in Tunnel Fires
9.4.1 Transition Between Low and High Ventilation Rate
9.4.2 Model of Flame Length in Tunnel Fires
9.4.3 Flame Length with High Ventilation Rate
9.4.4 Flame Length Under Low Ventilation Rate
9.5 Summary
References

10 Heat Flux and Thermal Resistance

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Convective Heat Transfer
10.2.1 Boundary Layer
10.2.2 Reynolds–Colburn Analogy
10.2.3 Forced Convection
10.2.4 Natural Convection
10.2.5 Gas Properties
10.3 Radiative Heat Transfer
10.3.1 Simplification in Engineering Application
10.3.2 View Factor
10.3.3 Radiation Among Multiple Surfaces
10.3.4 Absorbing, Emitting and Scattering Gas
10.4 Heat Conduction
10.4.1 Thermally Thin Materials
10.4.2 Thermally Thick Materials
10.5 Thermal Resistance
10.6 Heat Flux Measurement
10.7 Calculation of Heat Fluxes in Tunnel Fires
10.7.1 Exposed Tunnel Ceiling and Walls at Upper Layer
10.7.2 Heat Flux in Lower Layer
10.7.3 Flame Radiation in Small Tunnel Fires
10.8 Summary
References

11 Fire Spread

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Introduction to the Theory of Ignition
11.2.1 Solids
11.2.2 Liquids
11.3 Fire Spread in Tunnels
11.4 Modeling of Fire Spread
11.5 Summary
References


12 Smoke Stratification

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Phenomenon of Smoke Stratification
12.3 Mechanism of Smoke Stratification
12.3.1 Entrainment
12.3.2 Smoke Layer Height
12.4 Simple Model of Smoke Stratification in Tunnels
12.5 Summary
References

13 Tunnel Fire Ventilation

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Normal Ventilation
13.2.1 Longitudinal Ventilation
13.2.2 Transverse Ventilation
13.2.3 Semi-transverse Ventilation
13.3 Longitudinal Fire Ventilation
13.3.1 Critical Velocity
13.3.2 Back-Layering Length
13.4 Smoke Extraction
13.4.1 Single Point Extraction Volume
13.4.2 Two Point Extraction
13.4.3 Short Summary
13.5 Cross-Passages
13.6 Rescue Station
13.6.1 Configuration and Function of Rescue Station
13.6.2 Smoke Control
13.6.3 Gas Temperature Beside the Door
13.6.4 Fireproof Door Height
13.7 A Simple Model of Longitudinal Flows
13.8 Summary
References

14 Visibility

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Different Methods of Predicting Visibility
14.3 The Influence of Visibility on Egress
14.4 Summary
References

15 Tenability

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Combustion Products Related to Toxicity
15.3 Toxicity
15.3.1 Asphyxiants
15.3.2 Irritants
15.4 Fractional Effective Dose, FED
15.5 Fractional Effective Dose for Incapacitation
15.6 Large-Scale Example of Fraction of an Incapacitation Dose
15.7 Irritant Gas Model
15.8 Acceptance Criteria
15.9 Summary
References

16 Fire Suppression and Detection in Tunnels

16.1 Introduction
16.2 Basic Concepts of Fire Suppression Systems
16.2.1 Deluge Water Spray System
16.2.2 Water Mist Systems
16.2.3 Foam Systems
16.2.4 Mode of Operation
16.3 Tunnel Fire Suppression Tests
16.3.1 Second Benelux 2000–2001
16.3.2 IF Tunnel, UPTUN 2002–2004
16.3.3 IF Tunnel, Marioff, 2004
16.3.4 VSH Hagerbach, Marioff, 2005
16.3.5 San Pedro de Anes tests, Marioff, 2006
16.3.6 SINTEF Runehamar Tunnel 2007
16.3.7 SOLIT 2008 and SOLIT2 2012
16.3.8 Singapore tests 2011–2012
16.3.9 SP Runehamar Tunnel Fire Suppression Tests 2013
16.3.10 A Short Discussion
16.4 Theory of Fire Suppression
16.4.1 Extinguishment Mechanism
16.4.2 Critical Conditions for Extinction
16.4.3 Fire Suppression
16.4.4 A Short Discussion
16.5 Tunnel Fire Detection
16.5.1 Types of Fire Detection
16.5.2 Summary of Fire Detection Tests in Tunnels
16.5.3 A Short Discussion
16.6 Summary
References

17 CFD Modeling of Tunnel Fires

17.1 Introduction
17.2 CFD Basics
17.2.1 Controlling Equations
17.2.2 Equation of state
17.2.3 Turbulence
17.2.4 Discretization Methods
17.2.5 Solution Algorithms
17.3 Sub-Models Related to Tunnel Fires
17.3.1 Gas Phase Combustion
17.3.2 Condensed Phase Pyrolysis
17.3.3 Fire Suppress
17.3.5 Heat Transfer
17.4 Recommendations for CFD Users
17.4.1 Computation Domain and Boundary Conditions
17.4.2 Fire Source
17.4.3 Grid Size
17.4.4 Verification of Modeling
17.5 Limitations of CFD Modeling
17.6 Summary
References

18 Scaling Technique

18.1 Introduction
18.2 Methods of Obtaining Scaling Correlations
18.3 Classification of Scaling Techniques
18.3.1 Froude Scaling
18.3.2 Pressure Scaling
18.3.3 Analog Scaling (Cold Gas, Saltwater)
18.4 General Froude Scaling
18.5 Scaling of Heat Fluxes
18.5.1 Scaling of Convective Heat Transfer
18.5.2 Scaling of Radiative Heat Transfer
18.5.3 Scaling of Heat Conduction
18.5.4 Scaling of Heat Balance in an Enclosure
18.6 Scaling of Water Sprays
18.6.1 Single Droplet
18.6.2 Water Sprays
18.6.3 Radiation Absorbed by Water Sprays
18.6.4 Droplet Diameter
18.6.5 Surface Cooling
18.6.6 Automatic Sprinkler
18.7 Scaling of Combustible Materials
18.8 An Example of Scaling Application in Fire Safety Engineering
18.9 Summary
References

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