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The Shell Bitumen Handbook



The Shell Bitumen Handbook explores the very latest technical trends within the industry. Compiled by an international team of Shell experts from Europe, Asia and the Americas, the 6th edition contains global examples of regulations, specifications and practice, highlighting similarities and differences between the regions and reflecting the fact that growth economies are adapting and developing new practices, specifications and driving research in this area.


  • ISBN: 9780727758378
  • Páginas: 808
  • Tamaño: 17x24
  • Edición:
  • Idioma: Inglés
  • Año: 2015

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Contenido The Shell Bitumen Handbook

Shell has been at the forefront of bitumen technology for over 90 years, and continues to play a leading role in global bitumen research and development. The Shell Bitumen Handbook is an authoritative source of information on bitumen use in road pavements around the world.

The Shell Bitumen Handbook explores the very latest technical trends within the industry. Compiled by an international team of Shell experts from Europe, Asia and the Americas, the 6th edition contains global examples of regulations, specifications and practice, highlighting similarities and differences between the regions and reflecting the fact that growth economies are adapting and developing new practices, specifications and driving research in this area.

An established, renowned and vital source, The Shell Bitumen Handbook covers the manufacturing, handling and main engineering properties and specifications of both bitumen and asphalt technology, examining how they are designed, manufactured, tested and used. The book also covers the analytical design of flexible pavements – a field in which Shell is particularly well established – as well as surface treatments and certification.

The Shell Bitumen Handbook includes reference to new and revised European harmonised specifications as well as new guidance on recycling, warm asphalt mixtures, foam mixtures, bitumen additives and certification schemes for bitumen and asphalt. There are also expanded chapters on the constitution and structure of bitumen, bitumen rheology, polymer modified bitumens, bitumen health, bitumen adhesion and testing of asphalts and surface treatments.

The Shell Bitumen Handbook provides new and experienced engineers with accessible and practical technical content such as:

- Global examples of bitumen regulation, specification and practice written by Shell experts across the world

- Coverage of the properties, testing methodology and performance related issues of different types of asphalt

- Information on the new standardised test methods to assess product performance

- State-of-the-art methods for building longer lasting road pavements

- Extensive referencing, enabling readers to discover more about subject areas and research topics

- New and updated appendices to support the reference value of the book.

The Shell Bitumen Handbook is an essential, comprehensive reference tool intended to be of daily use to civil engineers, laboratory and site technicians and operation managers, as well as students and researchers in pavement construction and maintenance.



1.1 Origins
1.2 Definition of bitumen
1.3 The uses of bitumen
1.4 Health, safety and environment
1.5 Other binders
1.6 Terminology References

Manufacture and storage of bitumens

2.1 The manufacture of bitumen
2.2 Fractional distillation of crude oil
2.3 Air blowing of short residues
2.4 Delivery, storage and handling temperatures of bitumen References

Handling, health, safety, and environmental aspects of bitumens

3.1 Handling and safety
3.2 Health aspects of bitumen
3.3 Bitumen and the environment References

Constitution and structure of bitumens

4.1 Bitumen constitution
4.2 Bitumen structure
4.3 The relationship between bitumen constitution, structure and rheology
4.4 The relationship between broad chemical composition and physical properties during the bitumen life cycle References

Specifications and quality of bitumens

5.1 Penetration grade, hard penetration grade and viscosity grade bitumens
5.2 Polymer modified bitumens (PMBs)
5.3 Oxidised bitumens
5.4 Hard bitumens
5.5 Bitumen quality
5.6 The CEN bitumen specification
5.7 The SHRP/Superpave bitumen specification References

Routine testing and mechanical properties of bitumens

6.1 Standard specification tests for bitumens
6.2 Temperature susceptibility – the penetration index (PI)
6.3 Viscosity
6.4 The bitumen test data chart
6.5 Engineering properties of bitumen
6.6 Cohesion References

Rheology of bitumens

7.1 Rheology, deformation and flow
7.2 The rheology of bitumen

Polymer modified bitumens

8.1 The role of bitumen modifiers in asphalt pavements
8.2 The modification of bitumen
8.3 Other modified products used for road and industrial applications
8.4 Properties of PMBs and related test methods
8.5 Manufacture, storage and handling of PMBs
8.6 Performance of PMBs for road application: Shell Cariphalte® example

Bitumen emulsions

9.1 A brief history of the development of bitumen emulsions
9.2 The components of emulsions
9.3 The manufacture of bitumen emulsions
9.4 Storage and handling of bitumen emulsions
9.5 Properties of bitumen emulsions
9.6 Modification of bitumen emulsion properties
9.7 Classification and specification of bitumen emulsions
9.8 Uses of bitumen emulsions
9.9 Trends and new developments in the use of bitumen emulsions
9.10 Further information on bitumen emulsions

Aggregates in asphalts

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Origin and type
10.3 Aggregate processing
10.4 Coarse and fine aggregates
10.5 Filler aggregate
10.6 Assuring aggregate quality References

Choice of asphalts for use in flexible pavements

11.1 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in Europe
11.2 UK pavements
11.3 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in the UK
11.4 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in France
11.5 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in Germany
11.6 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in the USA
11.7 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in India
11.8 Asphalts used in flexible pavements in China References

Design of asphalt mixtures

12.1 A very brief history of asphalt mixture design methods
12.2 Mixture volumetrics
2.3 Grading
12.4 Mixture design methods References

Design of flexible pavements

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Background to the design of pavements
13.3 The importance of stiffness
13.4 The elements of a flexible pavement
13.5 Stages involved in pavement design
13.6 Pavement designs in the USA
13.7 Empirical and analytical pavement design
13.8 Analytical pavement design
13.9 The contribution of Shell Bitumen to the development of pavement design
13.10 Example pavement designs using SPDM-PC
13.11 A glimpse of the future for pavement design? References

Asphalt production plants

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Types of mixing plants
14.3 Plant capacities
14.4 Additive systems
14.5 Cold mix plants
14.6 Warm mix plants
14.7 Asphalt plant control
14.8 Sampling References

Transportation, laying and compaction of asphalts

15.1 Transport
15.2 Preparatory works
15.3 Application of bond coats
15.4 Delivery and discharge
15.5 Pavers
15.6 Laying in adverse weather conditions
15.7 Machine laying
15.8 Hot-on-hot paving
15.9 Hand laying
15.10 Layer thickness and surface regularity
15.11 Joints
15.12 Chipping of hot rolled asphalt surface course
15.13 Installing gussasphalt
15.14 Compaction
15.15 Application of grit to surface courses
15.16 Opening to traffic
15.17 Specification and quality control References
Laboratory testing of asphalts

16.1 Fundamental tests
16.2 Simulative tests
16.3 Empirical
16.4 Determination of recovered bitumen properties References

Properties of asphalts

17.1 Stiffness of asphalts
17.2 Deformation of asphalts
17.3 Fatigue characteristics of asphalts
17.4 Failure theories for cracking in asphalt layers References

Influence of bitumen properties on the performance of asphalts

18.1 Introduction
18.2 The influence of binder properties during construction
18.3 The influence of binder properties on the performance of asphalts in service References

Adhesion of bitumens and moisture damage in asphalts

19.1 Thermodynamic principles of adhesion, cohesion and surface free energy
19.2 Factors affecting bitumen–aggregate adhesion
19.3 Disbonding mechanisms in asphalts
19.4 Methods of measuring and assessing adhesion between bitumen and aggregates and moisture damage
19.5 Improving bitumen–aggregate adhesion References

Durability of bitumens and asphalts

20.1 Bitumen hardening
20.2 Hardening of bitumen during storage, mixing and in service
20.3 Bitumen ageing tests
Surface treatments

21.1 Surface dressing
21.2 Slurry surfacing/microsurfacing
21.3 High friction surfaces
21.4 Grouted macadams
Alternative asphalts

22.1 Asphalts produced using foamed bitumen
22.2 Warm mix asphalts
22.3 Shell Thiopave®, a sulfur-based asphalt modifier for enhanced asphalt road applications
22.4 Recycling of asphalt pavements
22.5 Modification of bitumen by the addition of rubber References
Certifications of bitumens and asphalts

23.1 The regulatory framework
23.2 Standards
23.3 Certification for products and systems outside the scope of CEN harmonised standards
23.4 Requirements for product certification References
Other important uses of bitumens and asphalts

24.1 Bitumen in roofing applications
24.2 Bituminous adhesive for use with pavement markers
24.3 Airfield pavements
24.4 Conventional and high speed railway applications
24.5 Bridges
24.6 Recreational areas
24.7 Motor racing tracks, including Formula 1 tracks
24.8 Vehicle testing circuits
24.9 Hydraulic applications
24.10 Coloured surface courses and surface treatments
24.11 Asphalt kerbs References

Appendix 1 Physical constants of bitumens

A1.1 Specific gravity
A1.2 Coefficient of thermal expansion
A1.3 Coefficient of thermal contraction
A1.4 Electrical properties
A1.5 Thermal properties References

Appendix 2Conversion factors for viscosities

Appendix 3Blending charts„ and formulae

How to use the blending charts –
Figures A3.4 and A3.5

Appendix 4Calculation of bitumen film thickness in an asphalt

Appendix 5Bitumen product standards used across the world

Appendix 6Asphalt product standards used across the world

Appendix 7Physical constants of bitumens

Appendix 8Volumetrics symbols



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